Level 34
Level 35

Development & Underdevelopment in the Developing

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brain drain
large-scale emigration by talented people
Capital flight
The investment of their monies by local individuals and whole countries in overseas ventures and in foreign banks for safekeeping
(jump up and down)
East Bloc countries who sought political liberty and pushed the limits of reform
Air Pollution
Acid rain - damages buildings and vegetation
amino acids
the building blocks of proteins
streams converging in a basin (opposite of radial)
A worldview that values subordination of the individual to the goals of the group and adherence to the principle that people should be judged by their contribution to the group
the establishment and exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one.
Human Capital
Skills acquired through experience
Import-substitution industrialization
A trade strategy, now largely discredited, that puts high tariffs on imports as a way to stimulate domestic production of goods. The opposite of export promotion.
Informal economy
The part of the economy that is essentially untaxed and unregulated, including, but not limited to, many illegal activities (e.g., the black market) but also including casual labor, street vendors, and a variety of sim…
Less developed countries
The Third and Fourth worlds, encompassing Latin America, Africa, and most of Asia, characterized by relatively high rates of population growth and low per capita income.
Modernization theory
The approach to development that maintains countries should embrace global capitalism, reduce trade barriers, invite foreign investment, and diffuse markets to stimulate growth.
The state of being economically independent on paper (de jure), but not in practice (de facto), that is, the domination of a country's economy by foreign corporations.
Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs)
Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong (1970s/80s)
Primary Sector
Involves the extracting of raw materials such as: farming, fishing and mining
Secondary Sector
Manufacturing/making finished products such as: textile, food and consumer durables.
Squatter settlements
Residential areas that are home to the urban poor in underdeveloped countries. The various terms used to identify squatter settlements include the following: callampas, turgurios, favelas, mocambos, ranchos, and barriadas in Latin America; bidonvilles…
Structural adjustment
The policies advocated by the International Monetary Fund as requirements for debt restructuring, typically including currency devaluation, reductions in government subsidies, and privatization.
Sustainable Development
needs of present, new growth, population, natural resources, technology, and risk, environmental economics
Terms of trade
The relative prices of exports to imports for a country.
Tertiary Sector
Providing services such as: lawyers, doctors, accountants, teachers, retail and transport.
The state characterized by poverty, low rates of investment, high unemployment and rates of population growth, and low per capita incomes.
the condition when people work at jobs for which they are overqualified or that do not utilize their skills
The state of actively seeking but unable to find employment.
Uneven development
The persistent tendency of capitalism to generate social and spatial inequality, manifested geographically in rich and growing regions on the one hand, with abundant life opportunities, and poor or stagnant regions on the other, with widespread unemployment and poverty.
World-systems theory
A theory that holds that countries and regions practice economic activities and succeed based on their ability to produce needed goods and services for the world economy.
Agricultural extensification
a means of increasing food production only through an expansion of the total area cultivated and not by increasing the rate of labor or capital inputs. Done in the US because of the abundant…
Agricultural intensification
a means of increasing the amount of food produced by a given area of land through the use of additional labor or capital, such as the increased use of fertilizer, planting more crops per y…
Appropriate technology
Technologies that are appropriate to the environmental, cultural, and economic context to which they are transferred
Authoritarian Regimes
Regimes in which state officials prevent society from participating in the decision-making process; frequently resort to arbitrary violence against society;extract, use, and distribute economic resources in an arbitrary and violent fashion; and are rarely held accountable
Basic human needs
minimum acceptable levels for food, nutrition, drinking water, health, education, and shelter.
agreements or relations implicating only two governments
bilateral aid
foreign aid provided by the government of an industrialized country directly to the government of a developing country
bilateral investment treaties
agreements that enunciate the principles of treatment that foreign investors are entitled to receive from host governments and that permit multinational corporations to sue host governments in international arbitral tribunals for breach of obligations
Bretton Woods Institutions
Established in Bretton Woods, NH among western allies. Include WTO, World Bank (IBRD), and International Monetary Fund (IMF). Originally created to rebuild Europe, now focused on developing impoverished nations.
Bretton Woods System
The international monetary system developed after the Second World War in which adjustable pegs were employed, the International Monetary Fund helped stabilize foreign exchange rates, and gold and the dollar were used as international monetary reserves.
Capabilities Approach
method of understanding poverty and development developed by Amartya Sen. Sen argues that development should not be seen simply as rising income levels but rather as an increase in individuals' substantive freedoms and ability to map choices they value.
An economic system that emphasizes private property rights and market mechanism.
Carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Chartered Company
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indies colonies.
Civil Society
The collectivity of social organizations that are not controlled by the state - like church groups, environmental lobbies, and so on. The presence of which is necessary for democracy, good governance, and participatory development.
when propagules arrives in an area and establishes a reproducing population
Commodity control schemes
Internationally managed commodity agreements that entailed participating nation-states agreeing to adhere to country specific quotas for the amount of their product they could sell on the market in order to force prices up and …
a critique of classical social and political liberalism, stressing the central importance of the community group over the autonomous individual in the formulation of political and economic rights and obligations
comparative advantage
situation where a country produces goods more efficiently than another country (relative to other goods)
~ -3865m
Average depth of oceans on earth
45% remains, 55% absorbed
light penetration with depth at 1m
5 decimal places to the left.
How many decimal places do you move to when you convert from RF to statement?
consist of very fine particles suspended in a gas. Clouds are highly reflective.
Alfred Wegner
Proposed the theory of continental drift
Anglo- American manufacturing belt
in the late nineteenth century, the region that included ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and wisconisn and represented different major industries located in these areas
big saturated area under water
Birds Foot Delta
The river splits on the way to the sea, each part of the river juts out into the sea, rather like a bird's foot.
Burgess Shale
Thick layer of rock high atop the Canadian Rockies, near the eastern border of British Columbia, a bed called the
carbon dioxide
Respiration, combustion of fossil fuels, burning of rainforests and plant life
2nd order consumers
when certain species of bacteria use the energy contained in bonds of methane and hydrogen sulfide, generate energy instead of by photosynthesis
Power plant that lost coolant water to the reactor vessel.
cold front
colder air, heavy rain, thunderstorms, snow
Collision-Coalescence Process
Big water droplets form and fall, but loose mass as they do and evaporate. However, they collide with other little droplets and continuously fall, loose mass, get bigger, until hit ground before evaporating
commodity chains
refers to the set of actors and activities involved in the creation of a good or service
Level 36