Level 35
Level 36

Development & Underdevelopment in the Developing I


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Global civil society
The international network of nongovernmental organizations that seeks to influence governments and intergovernmental organizations in numerous issue areas such as development and the environment
global ethics
the field of study examining questions of morality at the level of the world , such as international justice, distribution of wealth, global trade, humanitarian activity
Globalization
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
global south
Economic and Political designation given to developing nations in Asia, Africa, and South America, many of which were former colonies during European Imperialism. These post colonial nations face low literacy rates, massive unemployment, littl…
global governance
the idea that in order for market-oriented development strategies to be effective, the political systems that surround them must be accountable, transparent, responsive, efficient, and inclusive
governance
rules of procedure and regulation designed to maintain order-or political order- without or with as little government as possible by engaging non-state institutions or civil society in the process of maintaining order
health equity
an emerging concept in health policy that defines as inequitable those disparities in health status within or between populations that are avoidable, unfair, and systematically associated with social (dis)advantage.
Heavily indebted poor countries initiative
a 1996 arrangement between the Bretton Woods Institutions and some large government donors to cancel some of the debts of the poorest countries if they implemented structural adjustment programs
hegemonic power
a great power or group of powers that can bring great pressures or inducements to bear on other states such that they lose some or most of their freedom of action in practical terms (th…
Hegemony
cultural, economic and political
homogenization
the tendency in dominant theories of development to portray the diverse societies comprising the Global South as sharing same history, cultural practices, and political and economic realities
Human development index
measure used by the united nations that calculates development not in terms of money or productivity but in terms of human welfare. the HDI evaluates human welfare based on three parameters: life expectancy, education, and income
illegitimate debt
a loan that should not have been made and thus reflects misconduct by the lender. such a debt is the responsibility of the lender, not the borrower.
Imperialism
exercise of military power and
indirect rule
a system of colonial government under which the governor and a council of advisers developed laws for the colony but local rulers were given the opportunity to exert some degree of authority.
industrial capitalism
Type of capitalism that began during the Industrial Revolution when capitalists were involved in producing and manufacturing goods themselves, often using mechanized and industrialized methods of production
industrial revolution
the rapid economic and social changes in manufacturing that resulted after the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry in England at the end of the 18th century
informational capitalism
a concept introduced by Manuel Castells, who argues that modern 'globalized' capitalism is largely about controlling the flows of strategic information, processes, and patents
integrated approach
an interdisciplinary ideal that acknowledges the complexity and interconnected, interdisciplinary nature of rural development problems. Such approaches and projects attempt to co-ordinate teams of disciplinary specialists, including agricultural, environmental, nutritional health, social, economic, and political expertise
international aid regime
the principles, norms, rules, and procedures and institutions concerning official developmental assistance associated with multilateral and bilateral aid donors and regulators
international division of labor
a concept expelling the location of the activities of multi-national corporations and their benefits and arguing that high manufacturing remains in the core countries and commodity and resource extractions is conducted in developing countries, …
international migrant
as defined by the US a person who stays out of their home country of at least a year
Keynesian Policies
policies to stimulate economic growth through state intervention in market processes, based on the idea that capitalist markets require state regulation in order to correct problems that emerge from the operation of free markets
legitimacy
government needs consent of their population to rule- without it they are considered illegitimate
liberal theory of violence
view that progress or development reduces violence- violence is seen as a setback to development
libertarianism
An ideology that cherishes individual liberty and insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life.
Listian industrialization
also known as infant industry protection, the idea that national industries may need to be protected from external competition, at least in the early phase of development, by tariffs that raise the cost of prod…
loan pushing
banks or lending agencies encouraging borrowers to take loans they do not need or will not be able to pay
Maoism
the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people.
Market Socialism
the attempt to reconcile features of the socialist political structures, such as a one-party state and a concern for social justice, with a capitalist economy
multilateral
arrangements agreed upon or participated in by three or more different countries, commonly for peaceful purposes over long periods of time
multinational corporation
An organization that manufactures and markets products in many different countries and has multinational stock ownership and multinational management
neo-liberal globalization
an economic doctrine that repudiates the role of the state in the economy, preferring to leave the economy in the hands of the market, and promotes the integration of economies and societies across the w…
neo-libralism
international economic theory that says that markets are almost always the best decision-makers in terms of efficient resource allocation and that trade and investment flows across borders are optimized when there are as few restrictions as possible
Neo-liberal orthodoxy
synonym for Washington Consensus, which advocates a development strategy based on structural adjustment to correct external and fiscal imbalances by means of downsizing the state, privatizing public enterprise, and promoting the market as the engine of development
new international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
non-governmental organizations
Def'n: nonprofit, private orgs that engage in a variety of int' activities.
Obsolescing bargaining model
a model of state-firm relations developed by Raymond Vernon that argues that each actor- state and firm- wants to capture a greater share of the benefits of foreign investment and that over time the rela…
odious debt
debt incurred by a government that was not democratically chosen, and the borrowed money may have even helped a brutal regime stay in power. It is immoral to force the people of these debtor countries to repay the debts.
OLI Paradigm
developed by John H. Dunning and also known as the eclectic approach, a theory arguing that the internationalization of multinational corporations can be explained through the interaction of three factors related to its ownership …
Paris Club
an informal association of government (bilateral)lenders that meets in Paris
Participatory approach
an ideological and philosophical commitment to an ideal that rural development is controlled by the full range of rural actors with a stake in it
Patriarchal System
When men had the power in the family, the economy, and the government
patron-client network
a central office holder, authority figure, or group provides benefits to supporters for their loyalty.
peacebuilding
the use of military peacekeepers, civilian administrators, police trainers, and similar efforts to sustain peace agreements and build stable, democratic governments in societies recovering from civil wars
Peripheral Capitalism
developed by development theorists, divide capitalist world economy into core and peripheral (some cases semi-peripheral) regions. In the periphery, capitalism develops differently from the way it developed in core countries and is characterized as extern…
Political Economy
look at city in the context of global patterns
political economy of war
relationship between economic activities, power structures, and violence during war time
moderate poverty
income deprivation and insecurity but at with actual physical survival is not threatened - US $2 a day at international purchasing power parity
relative poverty
a condition that exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs)
a refashioning of the IMF and World Bank's structure adjustment programs in the later 1990's. PRSPs are intended to cover a wide range of social, economic and political reforms, including a firm commitment to good governance
power/knowledge regime
a conception of political power that explores not just an international regime's direct political-economic power but also its knowledge-producing power.
Privatization
the process of selling government owned industries and businesses to private owners who can run them more efficiently
protestant ethic
the most famous theory regarding cultural influence on economic behavior, posited by Max Weber. It holds that certain characteristics of Protestantism (especially Calvinism) such as valuing austerity, discipline, and hard work to attain material we…
Purchasing Power Parity
A theory of exchange rates whereby a unit of any given currency should be able to buy the same quantity of goods in all countries.
real interest rate
rate of interest charged less the rate of inflation
refugee
people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
regulatory chill
the possibility that good public policy could be withdrawn or never proposed because of the government's fear of being sued by affected foreign investors
remittances
money migrant send back to family and friends in their home coutnries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
rights-based philosophy
justifies moral claims on the basis of fundamental entitlements to act or be treated in specific ways
rule of capture
policy whereby property rights are granted to individuals who can demonstrate productive use of a resource, such as cutting trees to plant crops
self-determination
belief that people in a territory should have the ability to choose their own government
semi-authoritarian regimes
or hybrid regimes
This includes:
-Adequate food, shelter, warmth and clothing
GNY as a measure of development (benefits)
GNY = Gross National Income - Per Capita
many excluded items
GNY as a measure of development (issues)
Measures
HDI as a measure of human welfare
Trade strategies- Primary outward looking stage
Primary good export in exchange for manufactured goods (which have to be imported).
Trade strategies- Primary outward looking stage EV
Goods with comparative advantage change over time
Trade strategies- Secondary inward looking stage
Import substituting industrialization, cutting back non essential imports - releasing foreign exchange.
Trade strategies- Secondary outward looking stage
Industrys that satisfy domestic demand export manufactured goods.
Level 37