Level 37
Level 38

Geographies of Production & Consumption


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production
The process that transforms scarce resources into useful goods and services.
Value Added
Gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy.
Industrialization
Period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing.
The factory system
The system in which several people worked under one roof, bringing together all the necessary machinery to be powered from belts by one steam engine, requiring very little skill
Asthenosphere
plasticlike layer of the Earth's surface below the lithosphere
Production chain
The process that transforms raw materials into a finished product, then distributes that product for consumption by households, government or industries
anthropochores
dispersal by humans
Indirect factors
Technology, infrastructure, financial system, government role, education/training, entrepreneurial climate
Optimum location
Alfred Weber- industrial location model; economist the ideal location for a manufacturing plant: where there is a balance between the locations of various raw materials, the labor force, and the markets where the final products will be sold
Break-in-bulk point
The point at which cargo is broken into smaller units to be transported
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
Maquiladora
A factory located near the border, often to take advantage of low wage requirements in that area
Colorado river basin
flows through 7 states and now contains 14 major dams that have prevented nutrient and water transport
Base employment
Employment that supports jobs in the service sector and other manufacturing industries restaurants and retailers
multiplier effect
expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or introduction of another economic activity
High technology industries
Companies that support the growth and development of sophisticated technologies Apple, eBay, Microsoft, Dell, and Google
Venture capitalists
Financiers who are willing to risk their money on a risky, initial idea in hope of great gains
High technology clusters
Areas that have a concentration of specialized labor, specialized inputs, knowledge spillovers, and market/user accessibility that benefits the high technology industry Yahoo, Intel, HP, IBM, and Texas Instruments
Globalization
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
alpine tundra
tundra found on high mountains, where high winds and low temps prevent trees from growing
Multidivisional corporation
A corporation with many divisions based on production lines or stages in the production chain Harley- Davidson (Motorcycles)
Transitional Corporation(TNC)
A corporation with many divisions based on production lines or stages in the production chain that crosses international boundaries Bayer (Aspirin), Honda (cars)
Locational Advantages
Reductions in production costs by locating in areas where wages are lower or some other factor makes it cheaper to produce in that area
Global assembly line
The modern reality the production chains are no longer completed all in one place
Global production line
A method of worldwide production in which the product is moved from one place to another in order to take advantage of favorable costs or specific expertise
new international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
Consumption
A necessary aspect of human existence
Luxury
Something that provides enjoyment beyond the necessities of life
Mass consumption
A large number of people purchasing large quantities of goods
Commodity chain
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in the commodity and is meant to exchange on the market
tourism
positive 4
Top five tourist destinations in the world
France, Spain, the US, China, and Italy
Barriers to entry
Factors that make it difficult and costly for an organization to enter a particular task environment or industry
social structure
the way in which orderly social life is maintained
Ideology
the mental characteristics of a people and the way in which they relate to their environment and social groups
power distance
the way in which interpersonal relationships form when differences in power are perceived
uncertainty avoidance
the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have beliefs in institutions that help them to avoid this uncertainty
masculinity/femininity
the degree to which sex roles are clearly delineated.
individualism
the extent to which the welfare of the individual versus that of the group is valued
long term/ short term orientation
the degree to which we value or short term activities or objects.
norms
rules dictating what is right and wrong, acceptable or unacceptable
2900
how many km thick is the mantle?
myths
a story containing symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions and ideals of a culture
concept testing
developing an accurate description of your product and ask people, in person or online, whether the idea of the product you intend to offer appeals to them
binary opposition
in which two opposing ends of a dimension are represented eg. good vs evil
monomyth
common to many cultures
rituals
a set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and tend to be repeated periodically
ritual artifacts
items needed to perform rituals
gift-giving rituals
consumers procure the perfect object, meticulously remove the price tag and carefully wrap it )symbolic change from commodity to unique good
gift giving and relationships
1. strengthening - improves quality of relationship
reciprocity
obliges people to return the gesture of a gift with one or equal value
rites of passage
special times marked by a changing social status
sacred consumption
involves objects and events that are set apart from the normal activities and treated with some degree or respect or awe
profane consumption
involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary everyday objects and events that do not share the specialness of the sacred ones
sacralsation
occurs when ordinary objects, events and even people take on a sacred meaning to a culture or to specific within a culture
chemical weathering
the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
Mass Production
Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
Anglo- American manufacturing belt
in the late nineteenth century, the region that included ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and wisconisn and represented different major industries located in these areas
Lowell, Massachusetts
named after Francis Lowell who helped establish the Boston Manufacturing Company in Waltham
high-technology clusters
areas that have a high concentration of specialized labor, specialized inputs, knowledge spillovers, and market/user accessibility that benefits the high-technology industry
transnational corporation
a corporation with many divisions based on production lines or stages in the production chain that cross international boundaries
name the four direct factors
raw materials, labor, financial capital, markets
name the six indirect factors
technology, infrastructure, financial system, government role, education/training, entrepreneural climate
raw materials
products that lose weight in production are better situated near the _______
market
The institution through which buyers and sellers interact and engage in exchange.
transportation costs; labor costs; overseas; governments; production processes
changes in recent decades have affected industrial location include: 1) _______ have declined 2) _______ and specialization of labor has increased 3) the majority of production is now conduction _______ 4) _______ …
later
the US industrialized _______ than some nations in Europe
72%
in 1860, the NE part of the US was home to _______% of all manufacturing
name the 5 geographic advantages to the Anglo-American manufacturing Belt
railroad network; close proximity between places; financial institutions; good ports, farmland, & abundant coal; skilled and unskilled labor
name the 5 causes of the shift of manufacturing in the US
1. shifting labor costs 2. car ownership and highways 3. petroleum 4. high technology 5. role of government
cheaper; increased; better; oil; gas; sectors; government
the causes for the shift in the US is explained by: 1. _______ labor costs in the south 2. _______ car use and trucking, and _______ highways made the railroads of the NE less impor…
universities; entrepreneural; venture; skilled labor; transportation; communication
the following geographic factors are associated with firms: 1. proximity to major_______ 2. an _______ climate with _______ capitalists 3. environmental amenities to attract _______ 4. good _______ and _______ networks
name some high-tech companies
Microsoft, Apple, eBay, Dell, Google
Silicon Valley; Intel, Yahoo, HP, IBM, Texas Instruments
name a high-tech cluster and companies within in
name the 4 characteristics of globalization
1. deterritorialization 2. more social & economic interconnectedness 3. faster communications 4. a multipronged process including political, social, cultural, and economic movements
Harley-Davidson
name a multidivisional corporation
Bayer, Honda
name a transnational corporation
vacations
_______ are a huge part of modern consumption
car or airplane
many people will choose to travel by _______ or _______
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of people, diseases, domesticated animals, and plants, and cultural knowledge between the peoples of the Old World and the New World
transnational corporation (TNC)
a corporation with many divisions based on production lines or stages in the production chain that cross international boundaries.
industrial revolution
the rapid economic and social changes in manufacturing that resulted after the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry in England at the end of the 18th century
industrial location
Changes in recent decades have affected _______
US
Who industrialized later than some nations in Europe (abbreviate the nation)
Textile mills
By 1790 these could be found in Rhode Island and the rest of New England had jumped on board by the 1830s.
72%
In 1860 what percentage of the northeastern part of the US was home to all of the manufacturing in the US?
NY, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore
What US cities had early advantages that persisted as northeastern cities became home to the vast majority of all US manufacturing?
Continental climate
Climate type that develops away from the influence of the ocean. It has low precipitation and a large temperature range.
South and West
After the mid-20th century there was a shift in manufacturing to what parts of the US? There was also a shift from inner cities to suburbs The movement of these jobs hurt many once thriving areas. Deindustrialization = Detroit
Apple, eBay, Microsoft, Dell, Google
High technology companies that have transformed not only US cities, but cities around the world, like Bangalore, India
High Technology Firms
Following geographic factors are associated with _______
Companies in Silicon Valley
Intel, Yahoo, HP, IBM, Texas Instruments
Production of goods
Globalization pertains to all aspects of economic activity especially the _______
Characteristics of Globalization
_______ :
Indirect
Technology, infrastructure, financial system, government role, education/training, and entrepreneurial climate are examples of _______ factors.
Alfred Weber
Least Cost Theory; best place to locate an industry to minimize costs of transportation and labor considers 3 factors: material index (ratio of weights of raw materials to finished products), labor (skilled v. unskilled, …
High Technology Companies
Apple, eBay, Microsoft, Dell, and Google are _______.
Level 39