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Level 43

Plate Tectonics


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tectonic plates
Sections of the Earth's crust that move due to convection currents.
What is Continental Drift?
When all contentients drift apart. They all used to fit together like a puzzle.
Sea-Floor Spreading
Process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
Pangaea, Pangea
A large "supercontinent" that is believed to have connected all of the continents on earth about 225 million years ago.
Plate Boundary
the outside edge of a tectonic plate
Boundary types:
- Divergent boundaries: characteristic of sea-floor spreading centers, where upwelling material from the mantle forms new seafloor and crustal plates spread apart (constructional). Zone of tension.
Article 288 TFEU
Direct applicability and Direct effect
Transform Boundary
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Normal Fault
a crack in the crust where the plate is stretched and both sides move apart, typically causing one side to slide downward
Reverse Fault
a crack in the crust where the plate is compressed and both sides slide into each other, causing one side to raise up
Strike-slip Fault
a crack in the crust where both sides slide against each other horizontally
Rift Valley
A long, narrow valley in Earth's crust where two continental plates are separating or between two faults.
Asthenosphere
plasticlike layer of the Earth's surface below the lithosphere
Subduction Zone
a plate boundary where one tectonic plate, usually of oceanic crust, slides under another plate back into the mantle to be recycled.
Tsunami
a large wave produced as the shockwave from a submarine earthquake moves toward the shore
Calderas
Build up of gasses inside a volcano is so big that explosions which occur clear out all magma and remove the peak of the cone leaving an enormous crater where later erutptions form smaller cones
Richter Scale
a rating system used to measure the magnitude (strength) of earthquakes.
seismograph
what is the name of the trace produced by a seismometer?
geyser
a fountain of water and steam formed as geothermal heat warms up groundwater, creating underground pressure
volcano
a fissure in the earth's crust (or in the surface of some other planet) through which molten lava and gases erupt
Viscosity
describes the thickness of a liquid
Silicate
a silicone-based salt found within the earth that can increase the viscosity of magma
Hot Spot
an unusually hot area in the mantle that may form a volcano in the middle of a tectonic plate.
Cinder cone
volcano that doesn't explode
Stratovolcano
a tall, explosive volcano usually characterized by high viscosity magma and large amounts of trapped gas
shield
the largest of volcanoes, characterized by thin, runny magma of very low viscosity that forms large, gently sloping sides from the ocean floor.
lithosphere
what is another name for the tectonic plates that float on the mantle?
97%
% of Earth Salt Water
Plate Tectonics
The theory that Earth's lithosphere is broken into pieces (plates) that move over the asthenosphere; boundaries between plates are where most earthquakes and volcanoes occur and where lithosphere is created and recycled.
Pangea
A supercontinent containing all of Earth's land that existed about 225 million years ago.
Plates
sections of Earths crust and upper mantle
mantle
what is the layer beneath the crust called?
inner core
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the earth
outer core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
Vent
opening magma flows out of
magma
rock so hot that is melted into liquid is called?
Lava
Magma once it is released from the Earth
Cartogram
Show size using data other than area
Igneous Rock
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
Metamorphic Rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat and pressure
Sedimentary Rock
a type of rock formed from layers of sediment
mineral
a natural resource that is not a plant or an animal
Cloud Seeding
Attempt to change the amount or type of precipitation from clouds.
Alkaline scrubbing (Scrubbers)
Pollutant-laden air is passed through a mixture of water and lime (CaO), trapping particulates and sulfur oxide gases.
urbanization
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
capillary action
A proccess powered by adhesion that causes water molecules to move upward through a narrow tube such as the stem of a plant.
Weathering
breaking down rocks
Air Pressure
This is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface. It is strongest at the Earth's surface because more air is above you. As you move farther away from…
Sea-Floor Spreading
The process by which new oceanic lithosphere (sea-floor crust) forms at mid-ocean ridges. As the new crust forms, it pushes existing crust in the opposite direction away from the ridge.
Rifting
It is the process by which Earth's lithosphere pulls apart to form long, narrow, faulted rift valleys and rift zones.
Mid-Ocean Ridge/Rift Zone
The most common type of divergent boundary. If located on the ocean floor it is called _______, if located on land it is called _______. Both types contain fault-block mountains and volcanic mountains.
Subduction
Process in which one plate moves under another plate, and into the mantle. Takes place at a convergent boundary.
Earthquakes are rated on two scales
o Intensity scale: classifying and describing damage to terrain and structures following an earthquake
Volcanic Mountains
The type of mountain that forms when magma erupts onto Earth's surface.
Choropleth map
map that depicts quantities for areal units by varying pattern and/or color
Compression
It is a stress that squeezes or shortens material such as rock. In places where rock is less rigid, compression creates folds. In places where the rock is more rigid, compression can create faults.
Stress
A natural, though trying, part of life. A reaction to difficult events usually involving feelings of anxiety. Stressful events do not become crisis if a person can cope with them and functioning is not impaired.
Sheer Stress
It is a stress that occurs when two tectonic plates move side-by-side past one another, causing material to twist and become distorted.
Tension
It is a stress that lengthens and pulls material such as rock apart. In places where tension is greater than the strength of the rock, the rock faults or breaks.
Ocean Trenches
deepest landform found on the ocean floor. They are created along convergent boundaries where one plate is subducted under another tectonic plate.
Volcanic Island Arcs
these island chains are formed parallel to ocean trenches as the magma produced by subduction erupts as lava.
Hot Spots
places where volcanic island chains form far from tectonic plate boundaries. At a hot spot, magma rises from deep within the Earth and eventually builds an island. As the oceanic plate moves, a new …
Tectonic Setting
The position of a particular landform within a tectonic plate. The setting information should include the type of plates and tectonic boundary.
Level 44