Level 44
Level 45


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Surface Waves
Earthquake waves that travel both sideways (like P-waves) and up-and-down (like S-waves). Cause damage to man-made structures.
amount of time it takes for one wave cycle to occur - from crest of one wave to crest of next
the distance between two consecutive and equivalent points on a wave
Wall of water
tsunami waves - the water actually moves, instead of energy moving through like normal waves
What causes tsunamis?
a massive disturbance that displaces water on a large scale and energy is released into the water. concentric circles!
Vigorous backwash
drag forces that pull the tsunami and debris backward and the water begins to flow in the opposite direction
Stripping of vegetation / soil
waves saturate soil with salt, ruins plans for years
chemicals get dissolved and mixed in with sea water as debris gets picked up and backwash moves it out to sea
clastic rock
Sedimentary rock formed from bits and pieces of sediment pressed and joined (compacted and cemented) together over time.
national oceanic & atmospheric administration
abiotic factor
Any nonliving part of the environment
Pacific Warning Center
Ewa Beach, Hawaii
Palmer, Alaska
West Coast & Alaska Warning Center
Great Sumatra earthquake
indian ocean Tsunami
Japan 2011 Tsunami
Biggest tsunami / earthquake disaster in more than 1200 years
La Palma, Canary Islands
conspiracy theorists - if volcanoes erupt, then fault line would move and cause earthquake(s), then there would be massive landslides. ALL 3 = La Palma Mega-tsunami
a giant tsunami that would result in "total purification" of life and resources. would wipe out every city on eastern seaboard and most of Europe!
Japan plates
on 4 plates -- two are N. American and Eurasian
seen in park -- water is squeezed up through cracks in ground from growing pressure
Level 46