Level 48
Level 49

Atmosphere


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Atmosphere
This is a mixture of gases that surrounds Earth. In addition to containing the oxygen you need to breathe, it protects you from the sun's damaging rays and is always changing.
Air Pressure
This is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface. It is strongest at the Earth's surface because more air is above you. As you move farther away from…
troposphere
the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere; contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and gasses.
stratosphere
a region in the uppermost atmosphere where temperature increases along with the altitude due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone.
Mesosphere
-"Strong" (or middle) sphere
thermosphere (location)
This is the upper atmospheric layer. In this layer temperature increases with altitude. The temperatures in this layer can reach 1,000 degrees Celsius (around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit). Even though the temperature is very hig…
radiation
This is the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves. It is how the Earth receives energy from the sun. Earth receives only about two-billionths of the sun's energy. But this small fraction of energ…
thermal conduction
This is the transfer of thermal energy through a material. Thermal energy is always transferred from warm to cold areas. When air molecules come into direct contact with the warm surface of Earth, thermal en…
Convection
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a liquid or a gas
Global Warming
the recent and ongoing global average increase in temperature near the Earth's surface
Greenhouse effect
trapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere near the Earth's surface
wind
This is the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure. The greater the pressure difference, the faster it moves.
global winds
These are caused by the combination of convection cells found at every 30 degrees of latitude and the Coriolis effect. The major examples include polar easterlies, westerlies, and trade winds. The easterlies and westerlies…
jet streams
These are narrow belts of high-speed winds that blow in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They can reach maximum speeds of 400 kilometers per hour (around 250 miles per hour). Unlike other global wi…
Air Pollution
Acid rain - damages buildings and vegetation
acid precipitation
This is precipitation such as rain, sleet, or snow that contains acids from air pollution. When fossil fuels are burned, they can release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere. When these pollutants com…
ozone
This is a form of oxygen that is high in the atmosphere. It shields living things from much of the harmful radiation given off by the sun.
chlorofluorocarbons
synthetic compounds containing carbon, chlorine, and fluorine that are used in refrigerants, propellants, the manufacture of foams, and cleaning solvents.
abiotic factor
Any nonliving part of the environment
Biotic
Living parts of an ecosystem
molecule
This is the smallest amount of a chemical substance that can exist. If it were split into smaller pieces, it would be a different substance.
temperature
according to what, are the 4 main layers of Earth's atmosphere classified
tropsphere, stratosphere, mesophere, thermosphere
List 4 main layers of Earth's atmosphere beginning with the layer closest to Earth
tropo
turning or "changing"
16-9 km
depth of troposphere changes from equator to North and South Pole
accessibility
the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations
Torricelli
invented the barometer
ozone layer
Why is the upper stratosphere warmer than the lower stratosphere?
TIROS-1
first weather satellite launched in 1960
meso
middle
meteoroids
chunks of stone and metal from space
-90 degrees C
in the outer mesophere, temperatures approach what temperature?
thermo
heat
the gas molecules are moving very rapidly and spaced far apart
Why wouldn't you feel warm in the thermosphere even though the temperature can be 1,800 degrees C
ionosphere
lower layer of the thermosphere
Aurora Borealis
Northern Lights
Central Lowlands
land west of Appalachians. good soil for farming
Level 50