Level 50
Level 51

Greenhouse Gases

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Paddy fields, Bacterial decomposition, cattle, one of the greenhouse gases
Water vapour
Always present - water cycle, traps heat, one of the greenhouse gases
carbon dioxide
Respiration, combustion of fossil fuels, burning of rainforests and plant life
nitrogen oxides
Combustion of hydrocarbons, over-use of artificial fertilizers
Have an opposite effect to greenhouse gases, lowers temperatures by reflecting sunlight, include soot & volcanic ash
Particulates (& volatile organic compounds)
Soot, dust, forest fires, volcanoes, burning coal and diesel
Sulfur dioxide
Volcanoes, coal industry ->inflammation of respiratory tract
Living & decaying plants, partially burnt fuels -> carcinogenic with prolonged exposure
(Formation of) nitrogen oxides (NOx)
N₂ + O₂ -> 2NO
(Formation of) sulfur oxides
S + O₂ -> SO₂
Primary pollutants
Chemicals that is released into the environment and has a direct effect on health or the environment
Secondary pollutants
Usually made from primary pollutants and have their own secondary effects
Catalytic converter
Devices attached to a vehicle's exhaust system to convert carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides into water and carbon dioxide
Thermal exhaust reactor
Unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide is reacted with excess oxygen and converted to carbon dioxide.
Lean Burn Engine
A higher ratio of oxygen is mixed with the hydrocarbon petrol so that carbon dioxide is produced instead
Limestone-based fluidised beds
Burning coal on a bed of limestone to remove sulfur
Sedimentation chamber
Larger particles in smoke are caught in the sedimentation chamber
earth, air, and water woven into each, the spark of life
Wet deposition
Acid rain, fog, snow
biological oxygen demand
Measure of how much dissolved oxygen the organic matter in a river uses
biological oxygen demand (BOD)
the amount of oxygen a pollutant needs over a period of 5 days
Carrying capacity overshoot
Population increases past the carrying capacity of the environment. There is a dramatic decline population because the resources can't support them. The carrying capacity is not decreased.
may be as distantly related to bacteria as bacteria are to man
main water pollutants
Heavy metals, pesticides, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, nitrates
the percentage of incoming sunlight that is reflected from a surface
attrition effect
extinction takes place relatively slowly after a long history of human activity because loss of habitat and competition for resources
Ante meridian
What does AM stand for?
insecticides, DDT, herbicides, fungicides
Heavy metals
Mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc
Blue baby syndrome, carcinogenic water pollutant
polychlorinated biphenyls
Water pollutant found in transformers and capacitors
Ozone treatment
Kills bacteria and viruses in water, expensive
UV light
Breaks bonds in DNA molecules in the genes in skin, leading to the growth of cancerous cells
Natural chemical to prevent UV damage
Greenhouse gases
Methane, water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, chlorofluorocarbons
Water falling from a cloud and reaching the ground. Can become acidic (pH 5.65 and know as Carbolic Acid) due to CO₂ in the atmosphere dissolving into it.
Stone (and Buildings)
Rain will react with this and erode it if it contains calcium carbonate like limestone or marble and become soluble salts, water and carbon dioxide.
Plant life
_______ can be affected by the acidity in the soil and may not grow properly due to it being too acidic.
the load carried by the river collides with itself causing it to break into smaller pieces
Nitrification and Acidification
In the atmosphere, slightly acidic ammonium salts are formed and would either sink to the ground or washed out of the atmosphere by rain. When the slightly acidic ammonium salts enter the soil, _______ and _______ can occur.
Level 52