Level 60
Level 61

Global Climates & Biomes


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Weather
The atmospheres condition at a given time and place with respect to temperate, moisture, wind, and barometric pressure
Climate
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period-typically over several decades
troposphere
the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere; contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and gasses.
stratosphere
a region in the uppermost atmosphere where temperature increases along with the altitude due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone.
ozone
This is a form of oxygen that is high in the atmosphere. It shields living things from much of the harmful radiation given off by the sun.
thermosphere (location)
This is the upper atmospheric layer. In this layer temperature increases with altitude. The temperatures in this layer can reach 1,000 degrees Celsius (around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit). Even though the temperature is very hig…
saturation point
the maximum amount of water vapor that can be in the air at a given temperature
adiabatic cooling
-as air rises higher in the atmosphere, the pressure on it decreases
adiabatic heating
-when air sinks toward Earth's surface
latent heat release
when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water and energy is released
atmospheric convection currents
global patterns of air movement that are initiated by the unequal heating of Earth
Hadley Cells
Vertical convection currents. Low pressure circulation
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
the area of the Earth that receives the most intense sunlight, where the ascending branches of two Hadley cells converge
polar cells
convection currents that are formed by air that rises at 60d N and S and sinks at the poles (90d N and S)
westerlies
the winds that are prompted from the combined effect of the air currents and the Coriolis effect that causes regions just north of 30 degree to experience prevailing winds from the southwest. in the Sout…
banded-iron deposits
reduced iron suspended in water. The first oxygen in the world bound with iron in water. Oxygen made by photosynthesis made iron. Once all the free iron in the ocean got used up it sta…
june solstice (20 or 21)
Sun is directly above the Tropic of Cancer at 23.5degree N latitude, Northern Hem. experiences more daylight hours than on any other day of the year
Absolute location and relative location.
What are the two types of location?
gyres
large-scale patters of water circulation
upwelling
the upward movement of water toward the surface
thermohaline circulation
a three-dimensional pattern of ocean circulation driven by wind, heat, and salinity that is an important component of the ocean-atmosphere climate.
biome
have a particular combination of average annual temperature and annual precipitation and contain distinctive plant growth forms that are adapted to that climate
windward side
side of a mountain facing the wind
leeward side
side of a mountain where the cold, dry air descends and experiences higher pressures, which causes adiabatic heating
rain shadow
the region formed by the warm, dry conditions on the leeward side of the mountain
growing season
when the temperature is warm enough for plants to grow
tundra
cold and treeless, with low-growing vegetation
boreal forests
forests made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
temperate rainforests
-moderate temperatures, high precipitation
temperate seasonal forests/temperate deciduous forests
more abundant that temperate rainforests
woodland/shrubland biome
characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
temperate grassland/cold desert biome
-characterized by cold, harsh winters and hot, dry summers
tallgrass prairies
eastern edge of North American prairies
shortgrass prairies
western edge of North American prairies
tropical rainforests
lie within approx. 20 degrees N and S of the equator
Cambrian explosion
BOOM! lots of animals all of a sudden. Not one major new phylum has evolved since then.
tropical seasonal forests/tropical deciduous forests
marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons
savannas
relatively open landscapes dominated by grasses and scattered deciduous trees
subtropical desert/hot desert
roughly 30 degrees N and S, hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation prevail
streams
typically narrow and carry relatively small amounts of water
rivers
typically wider and carry larger amounts of water
rapids
stretches of turbulent water
littoral zone
the shallow area of soil and water near the shore where algae and emergent plants such as cattails grow (lakes and ponds)
limnetic zone
open water, rooted plants can no longer survive, phytoplankton are the only organisms that can survive (lakes and ponds)
phytoplankton
floating algae that live in the limnetic zone of of lakes and ponds
profundal zone
region of water in very deep lakes below the limnetic zone
swamps
wetlands that contain emergent trees
marshes
wetlands that contain primarily nonwoody vegetation:
bogs
very acidic wetlands that typically contain
salt marshes
found along the coast in temperate climates
mangrove swamps
occur along tropical and subtropical coasts
intertidal zone
narrow band of coastlines that exists between the levels of high tide and low tide
photic zone
upper zone of the ocean
chemosynthesis
when certain species of bacteria use the energy contained in bonds of methane and hydrogen sulfide, generate energy instead of by photosynthesis
Level 62