Level 78
Level 79

Methods of Geographical Analysis

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height of a point in relation to sea level
Air Mass
A very large body of atmosphere defined by basically similar horizontal air temperatures. Moisture conditions are also usually similar throughout the mass. An air mass takes on the characteristics of a place it originates.
a group of islands grouped closely together
What does TODALS stand for?
Title, Orientation, Date, Author, Legend, Scale
What is a map?
It is a 2 dimensional projection of the world. All maps are distorted.
A drawing showing measurements that help you estimate actual distances
Small scale
large area covered
Large scale
small area covered
thematic map
focuses on a theme
Topographic map
provides detailed information about shape of land
GIS, GPS, and RS
What are the three types of geotechnology?
What is GIS?
A combination of software, hardware, and data that are used to produce digital maps. Uses layers or themes of data to investigate geographic problems. Produces pretty maps and allows for inquiry.
Location, Movement, Region, Human-Environmental, Place
What are the five themes of geography?
What separates PLACE from location?
Physical and human characteristics that give a place it's unique image.
banded-iron deposits
reduced iron suspended in water. The first oxygen in the world bound with iron in water. Oxygen made by photosynthesis made iron. Once all the free iron in the ocean got used up it sta…
Numbered lines that run horizontally on the map.Goes last in a grid reference.
Runs East and West
Runs North and South
Statement scale, line scale, representative fraction
What are the three ways to write a scale?
Statement scale
Is written in words, no longer accurate if map is reduced or enlarged.
Line scale
A line divided in several ways. If map is reduced or enlarged, scale remains accurate.
Representative fraction
Written in ratio form. If map is reduced or enlarged, scale is no longer correct.
Remote Sensing
To get info from far away
Geostationary orbits
Rotate at the same speed as earth
North-south orbit
Do not orbit with earth, follow a near polar orbit
In the east
Where does the sun appear to rise?
How many time zones are there?
24 one hour long time zones
Meridians or time lines
What are lines of longitude also known as?
autotroph (producer)
self-feeder - organisms produce their own energy (photosynthesis, chemosynthesis)
Post Meridian
What does PM stand for?
Pacific, Mountain, Central, Eastern, Atlantic, Newfoundland
What are the six different time zones in Canada from west to east?
Area cartogram (value by area map)
type of map in which the areas of units are proportional to the data they represent
Azimuthal projection (planar projection)
map projection based on the projection of the globe grid onto a plane as the presume developable surface
Science of making maps
What is Continental Drift?
When all contentients drift apart. They all used to fit together like a puzzle.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
method of using satellite observations for the determination of extremely accurate locational information
Globe Properties
characteristics of the grid system of longitude and latitude on a globe
International Date Line
What is the name for the line that marks the beginning of the world's time zones?
Connects points of data that are the same
Landsat Satellite
one of a series of continuously orbiting satellites that carry scanning instruments to measure reflected light in both the visible and near portions of the spectrum
Map Projection
map of transferring the grid system from the earth's curved surface to the flat surface of a map
Prime Meridian
What is the name of the line that separates the eastern and western hemisphere?
0 degrees longitude/latitude
At what degrees are the equator and prime meridian located?
Time Zone
A region on Earth that has uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes
Mean Solar Time
When the sun is highest in the sky
Why were time zones established?
To ensure that trains could properly schedule track use
What was used before?
Stanford Fleming in 1884
Who created them and when?
How do time zones work?
Directly related to degrees of longitude because of the rotation of the Earth
What is the middle point?
Greenwich, a borough of London, England
Why was this location chosen?
the USA has ALREADY chosen Greenwich as the basis for its own national time zone system
How many time zones are there? Why?
24 time zones because there are 24 hours in a day
to avoid passing through a city
Why did countries adjust their boundary lines?
biotic environment
environment of living things
The difference between the elevations of two features
Contour lines
Are lines drawn on a map joining points of equal elevation above sea level
Index contour
A contour line accentuated by a heavier line weight to distinguish it from intermediate contour lines
Spot heights
Those points that have been measured to be exactly that height above sea level
Layer tinting
When the map is coloured to represent different levels of elevation. It is used by using an elevation legend.
Two rules regarding contour lines
- They do not cross each other, divide or split
How is a gentle slope shown on a topographic map?
Contour lines widely spaced show a gentle slope or gradient
How is a steep slope shown on a topographic map?
Close together contour lines show a steep slope or gradient
How is a hill shown on a topographic map?
Represented by contour lines forming centric "circle", usually with a spot height to mark the peak
Level 80