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the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice
the load carried by the river collides with itself causing it to break into smaller pieces
the path that a stream follows.
the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
where a tributary joins the main river
pyramid of energy
This is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface. It is strongest at the Earth's surface because more air is above you. As you move farther away from…
central business district
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period-typically over several decades
situation where a country produces goods more efficiently than another country (relative to other goods)
a narrow valley between hills or mountains
change in elevation over a distance. This allows the river to move fast or slow and erode more or less.
rainwater stored in rocks and the soil which can flow back to the river or the sea through permeable rock
The water forces air to be trapped and pressured into cracks in the rocks on the bank of the river. This constant pressure eventually causes the rocks to crack and break apart.
A stream widens its valley by
a ridge of sediment deposited naturally alongside a river by overflowing water
a bend in the river's course
the end of a river where it reaches the sea or a lake
redundant meander which occurs in lowland where the banks of a meander have joined and river water has taken the fastest route downstream
allowing water to pass through it
a depression at the bottom of a waterfall caused by hydraulic action
An area of land that drains into a major river
the steeper outside bank of the river undercut by the fastest flowing water
Smaller rocks are bounced along the river bed. This occurs in the upper and middle sections of the river in general.
heaps of broken rock often found on slopes where weathering has taken place
flood water spread
having many curves and turns
the gentle slope formed by deposition on the inside of a river meander
Materialis dissolved within the water and carried along by it. Primarily this occurs in the middle and lower reaches of the river.
the beginning of a river in highland such as a glacier or a spring
valley side in highland
The water carries smaller particles of material. This process occurs throughout the course of the river, but increases the closer you are to the mouth of the river.
The largest rocks in the river are slowly rolled along the bottom of the river by the force of the water. This primarily occurs in the upper reaches of the river.
a stream or river that flows into a larger river
erosion downwards into the rock which occurs in highland due to the steep gradient
a steep-sided valley found in highland created by weathering and erosion
a cascade of water falling from a height from a river
A region or area bounded peripherally by a divide and draining ultimately to a particular watercourse or body of water
breaking down rocks
a way of getting from one place to another
igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
Earth's structure and internal energy, the geologic cycle -
solidified from high temperature molten mineral matter (magma)
formed from accumulations of mineral particles derived from weathering and erosion of other rocks
igneous or Sedimentary rocks that have been altered sufficiently by heat and/or pressure to change the texture and mineral structure of the rock
The theory that Earth's lithosphere is broken into pieces (plates) that move over the asthenosphere; boundaries between plates are where most earthquakes and volcanoes occur and where lithosphere is created and recycled.
The process of sea-floor spreading and subduction of the crust that produced the formation and breakup of Pangaea explains the young age of the sea floor
places where volcanic island chains form far from tectonic plate boundaries. At a hot spot, magma rises from deep within the Earth and eventually builds an island. As the oceanic plate moves, a new …
The lithosphere is divided into rigid plates that interact with other rigid plates, resulting in fractures visible on the earth's surface
Orogenesis (Mountain Building)
Means the birth of mountains
o Elastic rebound theory- process of how a fault breaks
§ Generally two sides along a fault appear to be locked by friction, resisting any movement despite the powerful forces acting on adjoining pieces of crust -> strain -> movement occurs releasing a burs…
volcanism, volcanic hazards, VEI scale, lahar, pyroclastic flow
-Less than 1% of deaths are due to lava flows
Volcano forms at the end of a central vent or conduit that rises from the asthenosphere through the crust into a volcanic mountain
o Basaltic material
- Flood basalts: characterized by the immense amount of mass and energy that pour onto the Earth's surface
outpouring of lava onto the ground
rising of magma and it being exploded out (thrown into the air)
a large depression created by the collapse of a volcano
o Cinder Cone:
a simple volcano built from blobs of lava ejected from a single vent
built of layers of lava, ash and volcanic debris
o Composite Volcanoes
along subduction boundaries at Continental plate-oceanic plate convergence or oceanic plate-oceanic plate convergence
o Primary factors in determining an eruption type (effusive or explosive)
- Chemistry of its magma, which is related to its magma source
weathering vs. erosion, karst (weathering processes & landforms)
weathering processes either disintegrate rock into mineral particles or dissolve them in water
Physical weathering process:
when rocks are broken and disintegrated without any chemical alteration. By breaking up rocks, physical weathering greatly increases the surface area on which chemical weathering may operate.
Concentric Zone Model
1920s: A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Salt-crystal growth (salt weathering)-
Dry weathering draws moisture to the surface of rocks. As the water evaporates, crystals develop from dissolved minerals. As this process continues over time and the crystals grow and enlarge, they exert a force g…
layer after layer of rocks peel off in curved slabs or plates, thinner at the top of the rock structure and thicker at the sides.
meaning combination with water involves little chemical change. When minerals hydrate, they expand, creating a strong mechanical effect that stresses the rock, forcing grains apart.
a decomposition process that breaks down silicate minerals in rocks; involves water in chemical reactions to produce different compounds
when certain mettalic elements combine with oxygen to form oxides. Ie. Rusting
distinctive topography formed in a region of chemically weathered limestone with poorly developed surface drainage and solution features that appear pitted and bumpy