Level 85
Level 86

Lithosphere, Hydrosphere, & Atmosphere


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abiotic factors
nonliving parts of an ecosystem
biotic factors
all the living organisms that inhabit an environment
lithosphere
what is another name for the tectonic plates that float on the mantle?
hydrosphere
All of the water on Earth
Atmosphere
This is a mixture of gases that surrounds Earth. In addition to containing the oxygen you need to breathe, it protects you from the sun's damaging rays and is always changing.
biosphere
earth, air, and water woven into each, the spark of life
biodiversity
the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem.
tropics
region between 23.5 degrees north and 23.5 degrees south of the equator; the sun's rays are most intense there and the temperatures are always warm
tundra
cold and treeless, with low-growing vegetation
grasslands
biome composed of large communities covered with grasses and similar small plants
population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
community
a place where people live, work, and play
habitat
place where an organism lives.
polar zones
the regions north of the arctic circle and south of the antarctic circle that receive the smallest amount of direct sunlight year-round
temperate zones
two moderate regions that lie north of and south of the tropical zone, each having hot summers, cold winters, and milder seasons in between
Air Pressure
This is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface. It is strongest at the Earth's surface because more air is above you. As you move farther away from…
troposphere
the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere; contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass and 99% of its water vapor and gasses.
stratosphere
a region in the uppermost atmosphere where temperature increases along with the altitude due to the absorption of solar ultraviolet radiation by ozone.
Mesosphere
-"Strong" (or middle) sphere
thermosphere (location)
This is the upper atmospheric layer. In this layer temperature increases with altitude. The temperatures in this layer can reach 1,000 degrees Celsius (around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit). Even though the temperature is very hig…
central place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
radiation
This is the transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves. It is how the Earth receives energy from the sun. Earth receives only about two-billionths of the sun's energy. But this small fraction of energ…
Thermal Energy
energy in the form of heat
Global Warming
the recent and ongoing global average increase in temperature near the Earth's surface
Greenhouse effect
trapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere near the Earth's surface
wind
This is the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure. The greater the pressure difference, the faster it moves.
global winds
These are caused by the combination of convection cells found at every 30 degrees of latitude and the Coriolis effect. The major examples include polar easterlies, westerlies, and trade winds. The easterlies and westerlies…
Air Pollution
Acid rain - damages buildings and vegetation
Level 87