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An organization that operates and competes in more than one country
The set of global forces and conditions that operates beyond an organization's boundaries but affect a manager's ability to acquire and utilize recourses.
The set of forces and conditions that originate with suppliers, distributers, customers, and competitors and affect an organization's ability to obtain inputs and dispose of its outputs because they influence managers daily
individuals and organizations that provide an organization with the input recourses it needs to produce goods and services
The purchase or production of inputs or final products from overseas suppliers to lower costs and improve product quality or design
Organizations that presently are not in a task environment but could enter if they so choose
Any way scientific discoveries are applied to practical use
Outcomes of changes in the technology managers use to design, produce, or distribute goods and services
Pressures emanating from the social structure of a country or society or from the national culture
the way in which orderly social life is maintained
The set of values that a society considers important and the norms of behavior that are approved or sanctioned in that society
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
Political and legal forces
Outcomes of changes in laws and regulations, such as deregulation of industries, privatization of organizations, and increased emphasis on environmental protection
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
tax on imported or exported goods
Ideas about what a society believes to be good, right, desirable, or beautiful
rules dictating what is right and wrong, acceptable or unacceptable
Norms that are considered to be central to the functioning of society and to social life
the extent to which the welfare of the individual versus that of the group is valued
the way in which interpersonal relationships form when differences in power are perceived
A worldview that values the quality of life, warm, personal friendships, and services and care of the weak
the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have beliefs in institutions that help them to avoid this uncertainty
Worldview that values thrift and persistence in achieving goals
A worldview that values personal stability or happiness and living for the present
the first theme of geography as defined by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; the geographical situation of people and things
Runs East and West
Runs North and South
central place theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
goods brought into a country
mutual dependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world
map of transferring the grid system from the earth's curved surface to the flat surface of a map
variations in relief
plant life of a place or region
high, rugged land that rises above surrounding land
environment of living things
area of raised land that's lower and less steep than a mountain
a broad, level area of land
a broad, flat area of land higher than the surrounding land
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period-typically over several decades
the belief that nothing is universally true. Instead everything is relative. Your understanding of things is based on circumstances.
belief in a single God
worship of more than 1 god
produce what you need to survive
The institution through which buyers and sellers interact and engage in exchange.
individuals control part of the economy and government controls part
belief that one racioal group is superior to another
exercise of military power and
adoption of western culture
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it, strong sense of loyalty to the government, the government promotes the nation, and patriotic.
the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large
The Production Era
In the production era, businesses needed to produce more and more, so their goals centered on production. The greatest marketing need in industries was distribution and storage.
The Marketing Concept Era
Businesses had a marketing concept, which included:
the middle links in a series of organizations that distribute goods from producers to consumers
the analysis of markets to determine opportunities and challenges, and to find the information needed to make good decisions
The Marketing Research Process
1. Defining the question (the problem or opportunity) and determining the present situation
information that has already been compiled by others and published in journals or books or made available online
data that you gather yourself (not from secondary sources such as books or magazines)
Global Marketing Factors
Using the Internet, businesses can reach many of the world's consumers relatively easily and carry on dialogue with them about the goods and services they want.
Technological Marketing Factors
Using consumer databases, blogs, social networking, and the like, companies can develop products and services that closely match consumers' needs.
the process of dividing the total market into groups whose members have similar characteristics
a marketing strategy with the goal of keeping individual customers over time by offering them products that exactly meet their requirements