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Level 94

Hydrology


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abrasion
the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice
capillarity
the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
Air Pressure
This is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface. It is strongest at the Earth's surface because more air is above you. As you move farther away from…
Capitalism
An economic system that emphasizes private property rights and market mechanism.
hydrology
The study of water and its effects on and in the earth and in the atmosphere
impermeable
preventing especially liquids to pass or diffuse through
infiltration
the movement of surface water into rock or soil through cracks and pore spaces
meander
a bend in the river's course
Permeable
allowing water to pass through it
Porosity
Having small spaces or holes through which liquid or air may pass.
water table
Top of the water layer under the ground is called this.
Weathering
breaking down rocks
zone of aeration
Upper soil layers that hold both air and water.
zone of saturation
lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water
physical weathering
occurs when mechanical processes break down rock
salinity
Measurement of the salt dissolved in water
Vertical Currents
Deep Currents, caused by difference in density. Altered by temperture and salinty
Ocean Surface Currents
streamlike movements of water that occur at or near the surface of the ocean
Gyre
the large, circular surface-current pattern found in each ocean
Specific Heat Capacity
Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one unit mass of a substance by 1° C.
the great pacific garbage patch
accumulation of trash in the pacific ocean, twice the size of texas
transpiration
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
Precipitation
any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface
tributary system
A group of streams that contribute water to another stream.
trunk system
a major river, fed by a number of fairly large tributaries; the main stream in a river system
river basin
An area of land that drains into a major river
water shed
area of land that drains water from higher land to lower land and into a stream
aquifer
big saturated area under water
well
drilled down to zone of saturation and water is pumped up
resevoir
n. a place where water is stored for future use
north carolina river basin
the land water flows across or under on its way to a river.
salt-water intrusion
near the coast, over-pumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into the aquifer
pollutants
Harmful substances in the air, water, or soil
wetlands
Ecosystems of several types in which vegetation is surrounded by standing water during part of the year
sewer systems
waste water systems
non-point pollution
water pollution that does not have a specific point of origin
point pollution
pollution that comes from a specific site
storm runoff
Polluted rain water that doesn't seep into the ground, but washes into storm drains.
sediment
Pollution made up of dirt particles
permeability
Ability of rock or soil to allow water to flow through it
sediments
Loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of shell that have been moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity
gravel
pieces of rock
sand
A naturally occurring grainy material made of finely divided rock and mineral particles; the most common ingredient is silica
silt
flood water spread
Subsidence
Lowering of the sea floor in the Gulf of Mexico.
subsurface
below the surface
hydrosphere
All of the water on Earth
polarity
Any separation of charge into distinct positive and negative regions
adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances
surface tension
The force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface.
specific heat
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius
Solvent
Something that dissolves solutes
Solute
Something dissolved in a substance
Solid
Matter with tightly packed molecules
Liquid
Matter with molecules that have room to move
Surface Water
Water on the surface of the planet
comparative advantage
situation where a country produces goods more efficiently than another country (relative to other goods)
Melting
Solid to liquid
H2O
Water Molecular Formula
Potable
Water that is safe to ingest
3%
% of Earth Freshwater
capillary action
A proccess powered by adhesion that causes water molecules to move upward through a narrow tube such as the stem of a plant.
ground water
rainwater stored in rocks and the soil which can flow back to the river or the sea through permeable rock
tributary
a stream or river that flows into a larger river
watershed
A region or area bounded peripherally by a divide and draining ultimately to a particular watercourse or body of water
Run Off
water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
Meandering Stream
Streams that have channels with many curves
load
the size of rock a stream carries. bigger = more erosion.
Sonar
We use this to find things in the ocean
Submersibles
A vehicle used to view the underwater ocean
upwelling
the upward movement of water toward the surface
sunlight zone
Uppermost layer of the ocean
twilight zone
Layer of the ocean with minimal light
midnight zone
Uppermost layer of the ocean that has no light
abyssal zone
Deep ocean zone
hadal zone
Ocean trench zone
Hydrothermal Vent
A vent at the bottom of the ocean that shoots out minerals and warm water
Oceanic Ridges
A crack in the ocean floor that is usually at a fault line
carbon dioxide
Respiration, combustion of fossil fuels, burning of rainforests and plant life
photic zone
upper zone of the ocean
Recreation
We use the ocean for things like swimming and diving
transportation
a way of getting from one place to another
Reservoir of Heat
The ocean can contain a lot of heat inside of it
photosynthesis
Process that uses light energy to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates
respiration
the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between living cells and their environment
Nitrates
Blue baby syndrome, carcinogenic water pollutant
Level 95