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(political partnership): the partnership arising from several village that is self -sufficient and complete for the sake of living well= The political partnership for the sake of noble actions. The city is a certain multi…
a person or group of people who share income
the first partnership arising from the union of several households for the sake of non-daily needs is the village, by nature, the village is above all an extension of the household.
Logos (Gk. for reason and speech)
claim of justice on one to another, nature does nothing in vain, and man is the only among animals that has speech, which helps them figure out which claims of justice is true and w…
Man is by nature a political animal:
Humans are not self-sufficient as individuals, therefore it is natural to form partnerships to fulfill needs. The ultimate partnership is that of the city, or the political partnership which makes humans complete. The city…
Slaves by nature/slaves according to law
Slaves by nature are animate possessions. It is natural, and necessary for natural slaves to be ruled by a master. Natural slaves are incapable of using reason and are more similar to animals than hum…
Expertise in business/household management,
A different temperament and expertise is required to manage a household than to rule a city. Being able to use resources well is a requirement; this includes slaves as well.
Mastery/kingly rule/political rule
Mastery the relationship between slave and master. There is absolute rule in which the master can never be wrong. Usually comes of a situation in which mastery is thought of as advantageous for both part…
living well. Living a fulfilled life of meaning, purpose, and virtue.
The only type of good that one cannot have too much of. Goods of the soul. Courage, justice, moderation, prudence. You have to have freedom to cultivate a set of virtues.
The leisure and reflection required by individuals in order to gain virtue.
An arrangement of a city with respect to its offices, particularly the one that has authority over all matters.
equality for equals, inequality for unequals.
(including who should be one and why), One who shares in ruling and being ruled with a view to life in accordance with virtue. Aristotle believes that those who perform necessary functions for the partner…
(what is the basis of the distinction),any regime that aims for the common good is considered correct.
Polity ("compromise polity"- "aristocratic polity")-virtuous regime
a regime that takes aspects of both oligarchy and democracy in which the multitude rules with the view to the common good. compromise polity- uses elements from oligarchy and democracy to make a de…
Democracy("moderate democracy"- "extreme democracy")
view to the advantage of the poor- poor masses have control and use govt. to serve their own needs (not the best kind of govt because leads to heavy taxation of the rich...). moderate democr…
Aristocracy("true aristocracy"- "aristocratic claim to rule")
accords public office primarily on the basis of merit. Aristotle esteems aristocracy as superior to these three alternatives, as it is the only form of government that takes merit, as opposed to wealth, into account.
Oligarchy("moderate oligarchy"- "extreme or dynastic oligarchy")
a state in which the rich are sovereign
Monarchy("constitutional monarchy"- "absolute monarchy")
power is held by one man who rules in the interest of the city as a whole
Dominance through threat of punishment and violence.
Education "relative to the regime"
This is the best way to preserve a regime, helps citizens understand and appreciate justice and laws of the regime. Will create the best constitution and "character" of the people
the knowledge of consequences and dependence of one fact upon another. Hobbes is a materialist- all thoughts come from the senses. Process of science- first names, then connecting the names to form the knowledge of consequences of the names,
are axioms- or starting points of reasoning. They are foundations of everything that follows. Necessary for the start of the process of science
The adding and subtracting of consequences (reason)
Religion- true religion
superstition- Religion, Fear of invisible power, feigned by the mind or imagined from tales publicly allowed. True Religion: When the power imagined is actually what we imagined. Superstition: Fear of invisible power imagined from tables not allowed.
Instinct toward or away from something
the sum of the appetites and the aversions
the last appetite in deliberation - the deciding factor
because cannot assume power and means to live well, without acquisition of more
pleasing and appropriate manner or style (especially manner or style of expression)
we call good that which we have appetite for. Hobbes claims that there is no true good because everything is relative to an individual. The word good corresponds only to the individual and no…
right of nature
liberty each man has to use his own power
Law of Nature
Man;s obligation to himself to do that which will preserve his life
A shared material standard of individuals within a community, society, or country
The ability of an individual to act independently, without fear of restriction or punishment by the state or other individuals or groups in society
State of Nature
a war of all men against all others, as we are of all near equal power, and will inevitably fight as our interests conflict with each other. In this state, men's lives are solitary, p…
A mutual transfer of rights between two parties
Agreement in which more or more parties may complete their obligations at a later point. "Without swords covenants are just words"
Covenant of mutual trust
Covenant founded on fear. Both parties fulfill their obligation later.
Sovereign (by Institution by Acquisition)
By institution: Men covenant to obey a sovereign, out of fear. By acquisition: Man forced to subject himself to sovereign also out of fear. The sovereign controls them by force/strength. Sword -to-throat example
, a covenant this multitude so united in one person is a , a covenant
Democracy/Mob-rule, Monarchy/Tyranny, Aristocracy/Oligarchy
The difference between the good and bad forms of government is whether or not you like them (i.e. oligarchy is an aristocracy you don't like)
Justice (just laws)
Obeying the laws set by the sovereign, as injustice is disobeying these laws. Laws set by the sovereign are the only laws that we should follow
laws for the common good, and are clear and explained.
God is the sovereign of all people, even sovereigns. There are three ways to know about God; one is direct revelation but that does not really happen anymore, so Hobbes says it is not re…
Enables the carrying out of politics and decisions
the state of nature (compare to Hobbes)
the State of Nature according to Locke:
freedom (of nature vs. in civil society)
[Do what you want to without asking anyone, but limited to the law of nature which states that you should not harm each o…
There are two freedoms, liberty and license, liberty is do what you want within bounds of the law, licences are unlimited freedom
law of nature (compare to Hobbes)
no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or posessions: for men being all the workmanship of one omnipotent, and infinitely wise maker §6 The law of nature come from god crea…
state of war (compare to Hobbes)
is enmity and destruction: and therefore declaring by word or action, not a passionate and hasty but a sedate settled design upon another man's life, puts him in a state of war with him aga…
absolute power (compare to Hobbes)
the end of civil society, being to avoid, and remedy those inconveniences of the state of nature, which necessarily follow from every man's being judge in his own case, by setting up a known autho…
slavery (compare to Hobbes)
the state of war continued, between a lawful conqueror and a captive, for if once compact enter between the, and make an agreement for a limited power on the one side, and obedience on…
basis of the natural right to property
The basis of the natural right to property is labour. "Whatsoever then he removes out of the state that nature hath provided, and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joine…
Man may only take as much as he may use without it spoiling. "As much as any one can make use of to any advantage of life before it spoils, so much he ma…
honor due to parents
A child is never free from the honor due to his parents. God "has laid on the children a perpetual obligation of honouring their parents, which containing in it an inward esteem and reverenc…
political society/civil society
To be in civil society a common judge is required. "Those who are united into one body, and have a common established law and judicature to appeal to, with authority to decide controversies between t…
The first first fundamental law of all commonwealth is the establishment of the legislative power as the first fundamental natural law,which is to govern the legislative itself, preserves society and everybody.Everyone has the first p…
the power that executes the of laws that are made by the legislative power ,and see to it that they remain in force.When one enters a commonwealth he gives up the power to punish c…
The power in every common-wealth,which one may call natural, because it is that which answers to the power of everyman naturally before he enters society.It contains the power of war and peace,leagues and alliances,and…
beginning of political society in consent
people by nature are all free,equal and independent, no one can put out of this estate and subjected the power of another ,without his consent.The only way one can divest his nature liberty and…
by being inside the boundaries of a nation you concede to laws and regulations of the government in charge. If you don't openly voice your discontent you consent to the government's actions you agree, …
verbal or written consent by the governed, opposite of tacit consent
power of executive to act and silence of the law for or against the common good
to acquire by force of arms; win in war: to conquer a foreign land.
domestic conquest or a change in leadership sanctioned by the people that does not change the laws or structure of the government
dissolution of the society
society is dissolved as the commonwealth is; any union created is destroyed and men are put back into the state of nature as they were before the commonwealth existed. When a society is destroyed, so isn't its government.
dissolution of the government (Dissolution of the Society)
Society is destroyed by foreign conquest, and the union that brought them out of a State of Nature is destroyed, so there is a return to the previous state, and government in turn breaks up with society.
a challenge to the authority of a recognized government
appeal to heaven
the only remaining appeal when all other channels of appeal have been removed, is to use force and let god decide
Natural law (as understood by the Romans, the Moderns, and by Rousseau),
Roman: empirical regularities - descriptive; Moderns: prescriptive, normative, order to do something; Rousseau: "natural": innate, uniform, apply to everyone, independent on reason, in the state of nature before society
Rules of natural right
before reason, natural motives of a human: self-love(wellbeing, self-preservation), perfectibility(developing oneself, reason, intelligence, improvement), pity(disinclination to see suffering)
physical inequality, based on physical properties: age, strength , intelligence - innate differences between humans by nature
political inequality, created in society and not by nature, societal consensus, differences based on wealth, power, status, living at expense of others
Self love (amour de soi)
natural interest in one's own well being
desire to be loved by others for what one values in themself
Man's capacity to develop intelligence and reason and evolve from the natural state
A natural disinclination to witness suffering in others
Natural goodness of man
As a consequence of pity and lack of interaction, the pure state of nature was relatively peaceful
Maxim of reasoned justice,
Do unto others as you would have them do unto you." The Golden Rule consequence of pity
Maxim of natural goodness:
Inspired by the maxim of reasoned justice "Do what is good for you with the least possible harm to others."
The three moments in the state of nature and the "revolutions" that divide them
the pure state of nature, in the pure state of nature men lived separately from each other and were not inherently good nor evil. Man's desire for perfectibility eventually led to men working togethe…
The three moments in civil society and the transitions that divide them
civil society without government, the condition men lived in after the state of war. The rich, purely because they are rich, design society with property being paramount which continued to oppress the poor. The r…
Origins of property rights
property rights arose when the rich, realizing that they were of a much smaller number and the poor would eventually rise up to take their property, decided to establish legitimate government which enforced property ri…
Fundamental maxim of political right
Political rule cannot possibly be absolute. The people have consented to a government to secure their freedom, not surrender it
Domestic or private economy
Household management. All work to serve the good of the father so he may prosper and distribute resources to the people
Societal management. In contrast to domestic economy, political economy is for the direct good of the people.
Sovereignty (compare to Hobbes)
In Rousseau's government, the people themselves are sovereign. They have united their forces in order to enforce the law. Hobbesian sovereignty is vested in one ruler.
Government (compare to Locke)
government is the body set up between the citizens and the sovereign to attend to the execution of laws and preservation of liberty. ALSO refers to the legitimate use of executive power and the en…
is sacred and absolute, reflecting the common interests of all the people who have displeased the monarch as the holder of sovereign power, it is not necessarily the will of the majority.
The true foundation of civil society
Reference on pp. 161; first man to say "This is mine" and then consequently have others believe it was the start of civil society. The wealthy created society to consent to respect property
Alienation (four aspects of)
the four ways in which the worker is alienated by his menial work are,1. alienation from the object of his production, 2. alienation from his species life, 3. alienation from others around him and fina…
Communism ("crude unthinking communism" and "complete" communism)
nationalization of industry and all are leveled to fill envy as in the USSR
a force that works in tandem with flawed materialism, wrongfully designed to establish goals for sensuous human activity to achieve because it does not "know actual, sensuous activity as such"
a flawed force that has portrayed actuality through perception rather than sensuous human activity, past materialism "is too passive and ahistorical"
Understands society as fundamentally determined by material conditions at any given time (the relationships which people enter into with one another in order to fulfill their basic needs) "it is not the consciousness of…
Dialectical movement of history
refers to the overall economic theory in which dialectics plays a minor role. Economic history progresses through many economic systems through a repetitive process in which each system's economic base changes and then the …