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a consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government.
base is the totality of the relations of the production and from the base arises the political superstructure
The state/political power
the organised power of one class to oppress another.
Against the emerging capitalist class.
Another name for the industrial middle class supposedly continually oppressed by the bourgeoisie.
Karl Marx books
Historical conceptions of property (classical feudal, bourgeois),
Classical: Property is held in slaves. Feudal: feudal property in estates held by lords who have peasants/renters on their land. Bourgeois: Private, exclusive property that is protected as a right by the state
a form of government in which ultimate responsibility for the exercise of power rests with the majority of the people
Independence is greater in aristocracy than in democracy because the government is more divided and restrained in aristocracies and control fewer aspects of your life. Aristocracy is not possible anymore because there is too g…
Tocqueville is referring to "the different notions possessed by men, the various opinions current among them, and the sum of ideas that shape mental habits."
social state (compare to Aristotle on the regime)
arrangement of society, Aristotle's regime is arrangement of offices
Not Accounted For
Tocqueville's "new political science"
spirit of freedom
the overarching freedoms afforded to citizens in a country
Spirit of Religion
the dominating religious aspect of a country (note: Tocqueville cites that in France he sees the Spirit of Religion and the Spirit of Freedom going in opposite directions but in America he believes as…
estate laws direct and indirect effects thereof
the estate law mandates the "equal division of a father's property among all his children" (chapter 3). Direct Effects: Estates are separated, individuals receive only partial inheritance. Indirect Effects: No conglomeration of estates, individuals …
Individuals receive passion for equality ("manly and legitimate" v. "depraved")
manly and legitimate equality is man's desire to be "strong and esteemed" (Chap 3, Part I). This wish for equality makes lesser men become great because they seek to equal great men they see. Depr…
tyranny of the majority
exercised in law and over thought
township and its role in America's political order
The township is the smallest unit of democracy. It allows for direct participation of individuals in self-government, causing the people to become accustomed to self-rule and reinforcing patriotism and the community spirit.
In the early US, local, specific matters were handled by many local officials. Decentralized administration is less effective, but it is far more difficult for despotism to arise when the government has to rel…
Government centralization is the central control of national interests. While the early US did have as central government, as the Congress, the President, and the federal courts did rule all of the citizens as individu…
originality of American federalism and its effects
not exercise of power over composite states but power over individuals
Belief that what is good for society is based on what is good for individuals
citizens are treated like children who cannot handle responsibility; are individuals only focused on the trivial joys and needs in their lives, caring only for themselves and are disconnected from fellow citizens and the na…
freedom of the press direct and indirect (political) effects thereof
allows citizens to call people of equal thought and opinion together, helps correct equality in that it gives citizens their individual voices to do with what they want
freedom of association
direct and indirect (political) effects thereof, Associations are essential to a democracy. They combat the dangers of tyranny of the majority and individualism by allowing many individuals of one opinion to combine in political action.
freedom of religion
direct and indirect (political) effects thereof,In the US, church and state are separated. This actually increases the strength of religion, as faiths tied to the state are subject to attacks on the government, where…
spirit of the lawyer and the legal profession
The specific knowledge required to practice law, as well as the disproportionate power of lawyers in the government, creates a de facto aristocracy of lawyers. Indirectly, the rule of precedent-based common law creates a conserva…
patriotism(instinctive and unreflective v. rational and born of enlightenment)
Instinctive: a temporary call to action, motivated merely by living in a country Rational: Love of others in society, based on the realization that one's own interests are tied to those of society as a whole
idea of rights
Political rights lead to a respect for the law, as the people believe that they have authored all legislation. Rights are the best means of inspiring patriotism
∑ The Athenian house of Congress, the assembly of the representatives of the people of Athens.
∑ Plutarch was a Greek citizen when Greece was part of Athens.
Temple of Apollo at Delphi
∑ The most famous of the temples.
Amphitheater at Delphi
∑ This is a typical architectural form that you would find in Athens and the various other Greek city states for having city events.
∑ Archon of Athens
∑ The president.
Solon's Rationalizing Reforms
∑ Written, public law
Vitoria is living
in Salamanca, Spain. (15th and 16th centuries)
King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile
∑ Aragon- across the east of Spain and parts of Italy.
∑ Spanish Inquisition
∑ Alhambra Decree
What else happened in 1492?
∑ Christopher Columbus claims San Salvador for Spain in 1492.
Charles I of Spain
∑ Isabella died in 1504
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
∑ The Pope rules men's souls
University of Salamanca
∑ Vitoria goes off to Paris to study for 15 years in theology then comes back to the University of Salamanca for a professorship.
St. Thomas Aquinas
∑ Vitoria speaks of him all the time.
The New World
∑ Charles in fact does consult with Vitoria many times.
Vitoria Lecture Style
∑ Vitoria takes some famous work and he goes through it line by line and commenting on the text. This is known as a relection (relleción).
In utramque partem
∑ In courts, the defendants were given "Devil's Advocates".
∑ Vitoria would think immediately of Aristotle
∑ Natural law
Vitoria asks about the different kinds of law
a form of government in which a small group-landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants-controls most of the governing decisions
∑ Does the Constitution rely on some 'higher authority'
Nuremberg Trials- Who is Guilty?
∑ The higher up officers are guilty.
∑ Vitoria's preoccupations
The big themes we've seen in Vitoria
4 Themes of Vitoria
∑ Naturally social
∑ Charles II is crowned in 1660, restoring the royal line
∑ Lord High Chancellor
Anthony Ashley Cooper First Earl of Shaftesbury
∑ Personal physician to Shaftesbury household,
Problem with Locke
∑ Many of the nobles are Protestants and they also want their own power. They don't want a strong monarchy because it inhibits what they can/cannot do.
Who should succeed Charles II as king?
∑ His brother James, Duke of York?
∑ "The Exclusion Controversy"
King James II (brother of Charles II)
∑ A catholic king married to a catholic queen.
Whig friends of Locke and Shaftesbury organize a plot
∑ James II is told to abdicate the throne, naming his daughter Mary and her husband William as successors.
∑ Glorious Revolution
John Locke is the "house intellectual" of the Whigs
∑ Published Two Treatises of Government in 1690.
∑ Two Treatises of Governmnet
Two Things of Locke
∑ p. 8 "To understand political power right and derive it from its original we must consider what state all men are naturally in, a state of perfect freedom. To dispose of their person…
What's Next for Locke?
∑ Nobody should be able to be more equal than others, UNLESS God puts someone over us.
John Locke is thinking abstractly... what is natural for human relations?
What has George done to the judiciary?
∑ He has nationalized it... made it reliant on him for their salaries etc.
In Second Treatise?
∑ Locke- no government left, which dissolves the structure of the society itself. Undermines the social contact.
we have identical parallels.
The Second Treatise and the Declaration of Independence
Locke and Shaftesbury write the
Carolina Colony's Constitution together in 1669.
Locke description of the state of nature...
∑ "Thus in the beginning all the world was America".
Second way Locke can get tripped up
∑ Natives have a civil society and their society can lay down rules for the acquiring of property.
Locke says there's no clear sense of authority
∑ If you look at the civilization of the natives, there's no centralized power; government institutions.
John Locke 1
∑ Great hero of our traditional perspective on life, liberty and property.
John Locke 2
∑ Essentially takes part of his life, liberty and property back
wanted "direct democracy" where the people as a whole make decisions for themselves
Life of Rousseau
∑ Rousseau's mother dies after childbirth
o American Revolution, 1776
∑ American Revolution
∑ French Revolution
∑ By associating together, you can enhance your own self-interest. Locke doesn't say that, but Rousseau would.
Rousseau on the state of nature
∑ You're born free but then society corrupts you
∑ Talks about difference between a things essence
Rousseau is saying that Vitoria and Locke talk about natural law and they have solved some type of problem
What is Rousseau going to put in its place?
o If you pay careful attention to this, what he is saying is that the general will cannot have a particular object. What would happen if it had a particular object is that we w…
Rousseau's 4 Themes
∑ Naturally free and sovereign, interested in common good
Rousseau's often mistaken idea?
∑ He has a theory of direct democracy;
The truth about Rousseau's mistaken idea
o There has to be a general basis of consensus on the foundation of the political system.