Level 28
Level 29

Politics of Public Policy


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political agenda
Issues that people believe require governmental action.
Benefit
A satisfaction that people believe they will enjoy if a policy is adopted.
Client Politics
A policy in which one small group benefits and almost everybody pays.
Cost
A burden that people believe they must bear if a policy is enacted.
Entrepreneurial Politics
A policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays the cost.
Interest-Group Politics
A policy in which one small group benefits and another small group pays.
Logrolling
A legislator supports a proposal favored by another in return for support of his or hers.
Majoritarian Politics
A policy in which almost everybody benefits and almost everybody pays.
Policy Entrepreneurs
Activists in or out of government who pull together a political majority on behalf of unorganized interests.
Pork Barrel Legislation
Legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return.
Process Regulation
Rules governing commercial activities designed to improve consumer, worker, or environmental conditions.(Social Regulation)
Budget
A document that states tax collections, spending levels and the allocation of spending among purposes
Budget Resolution
A congressional decision that states the maximum amount of money that the government should spend.
deficit
a government's practice of spending more money than it receives in revenue, the difference being made up by borrowing
Economic Planning
The belief that government plans, such as wage and price controls or the direction of investment, can improve the economy.
Entitlement
A claim for government funds that cannot be changed without violating the rights of the claimant.
Fiscal Policy
Managing the economy by altering tax and spending laws
Fiscal Year (FY)
For the federal government, October 1 through the following September 30.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year
Keynesianism
The belief that government must manage the economy by spending more money when in a recession and cutting spending when there is inflation.
Monetarism
The belief that inflation occurs when too much money is chasing too few goods
Monetary Policy
Managing the economy by altering money and interest rates
National Debt
The total amount of all deficits
Reganomics
The belief that a combination of monetarism, lower federal spending, and supply-side economics will stimulate the economy.
Sequester
Automatic spending cuts
Supply-Side Economics
The belief that lower taxes and fewer regulations will stimulate the economy.
Assistance Program
A government program financed by general income taxes that provides benefits to poor citizens without requiring contribution from them.
Charitable Choice
Name given to four federal laws passed in the late 1990's specifying the conditions under which nonprofit religious organizations could compete to administer certain social service delivery and welfare programs.
Earned Income Tax Credit (EINC)
A provision of a 1975 law that entitles working families with children to receive money from the government if their total income is below a certain level. The program was expanded in the early 1990's.
Income Strategy
A policy giving poor people money to help lift them out of poverty.
Insurance Program
A self-financing government program based on contributions that provide benefits to unemployed or retired persons.
Means Test
An income qualification program that determines whether one is eligible for benefits under government programs reserved for lower-income groups.
Service Strategy
A policy providing poor people with education and job training yo help lift them out of poverty.
Containment
The belief that the United States should resist the expansion of aggressive nations, especially the former Soviet Union.
Cost Overruns
When the money actually paid to military suppliers exceeds the estimated costs.
Disengagement
The belief that the United States was harmed by its war in Vietnam and so should avoid supposedly similar events.
Gold Plating
The tendency of Pentagon officials to ask weapons contractors to meet excessively high requirements.
Human Rights
The view that we should try to improve the lives of people in other countries.
Isolationism
The opinion that the United States should withdraw from world affairs.
Military-Industrial Complex
An alleged alliance between military leaders and corporate leaders.
Worldview
A comprehensive opinion of how the United States should respond to world problems.
Acid Rain
a mixture of wet and dry deposited material from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acid
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Bubble Standard
Clean air act
1963 - regulated automotive and industrial emissions....result of environmental movement
Command and Control Strategy
A strategy to improve air and water quality, involving the setting of detailed pollution standards and rules.
Environmental Impact Statement
A report required by federal law that assesses the possible effect of a project on the environment if the project is subsidized in whole or part by federal funds.
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Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)
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National Environmental Policy Act(NEPA)
Offsets
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Pollution allowances or banks
Scrubber
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Level 30