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Emergence of Modern China


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abdicate
give up, such as power, as of monarchs and emperors, or duties and obligations
sphere of influence
an area in which a foreign power has some control but does not directly govern
warlord
a regional leader with his own army
light industry
the production of small consumer goods
Martial Law
After the Solidarity party was outlawed and its leader Lech Walesa arrested, Poland was placed under military rule or __________
Chiang Kai-shek
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Deng Xiaoping
(1904-1997) Communist party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
Sun Yat-sen
1866-1925, the father of modern China. United a number of opposition groups into a movement called the Revolutionary Alliance. Hoped to carry out a government takeover that would progress from military revolt to the forma…
Cultural Revolution
(1966-1976) Political policy in started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, …
Great Leap Forward
1958-1961, Mao's attempt at rapid collectivization and industrialization which failed miserably, causing the deaths of millions due to starvation.
Tiananmen Square
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
Taiwan
Island where the defeated Nationalist Chinese under Chiang Kai-shek fled to after their defeat by Mao Zedong and the Communists
Red Guards
The youths who led Mao's Cultural Revolution. Wore red arm bands and carried his book. Terrorized Chinese citizens and determined who went to camps.
Four Modernizations
Deng Xiaoping's plan to change China after the disaster of Cultural Revolution. Improve- agriculture, science/technology, defense and industry
contract responsibility system
Adopted in the early 1980s, this system allowed peasant farms to lease land and plant crops of their choice. Because of its success in increasing agricultural output, it replaces the commune system
Fifth Modernization
Chinese citizens demand for political reform; especially the freedom to express their political views without fear.
Nationalists
Political Party that sought to rid China of western influence, but also embraced many western customs. Overthrew the last Emperor and set up the first Chinese Republic.
Communists
Followers of Carl Marx who were forced to flee Chiang Kai-sheks Nationalist forces, but eventually took control of the country after WWII
Special Economic Zones
Set up along China's east coast to draw in foreign capital, companies, and technology. Hugely successful, but created an unequal distribution of population and money in China
The Four Olds
The old order that Mao and his Red Guards set out to destroy in his Cultural Revolution: 1. Old Ideology 2. Old Thought 3. Old Habits 4. Old Customs
Mao's Little Red Book
Mao's writings and speeches that were collected, printed and distributed for all to read and memorize during his cultural revolution. The books cover was all red.
Communist Take Over
After the Nationalists and Communists briefly joined forces to fight the Japanese invasion in the 1930s, the Communists gained the support of the peasant population and forced the Nationalists to flee to Taiwan
Level 4