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Everyone was equal
What was the new construction of politics?
How did the people learn politics?
They became involved, elites (noble and bourgeois) had experience working in government and administration
Through birth and wealth
How did people attain power under the Old Regime?
When were all men declared free and equal?
Who now claimed power?
Men of ability and talent that served for the middlemen for the privileged elite under the Old Regime
What advantages did these middlemen have?
Many were lawyers and experienced firsthand the problems of the exercise of power in the Old Regime and had own ideas about reform
T/F - Robespierre engineered the Jacobins' replacement of the Girondins as leaders of the government
Why were workers unable to seize their rights?
Contradictions of representation and participation, experimenting with democracy led to outcomes that did not look democratic at all
1789 - 1792
When did the first stage of the French Revolution take place?
What was it's basis on?
Liberty - to compete, to own, and to suceed
When did the second stage of the French Revolution take place?
What was it's basis?
Equality - the revolution of the working people of French cities
What had the urban workers come to believe in?
They were not benefiting from the revolution but had come to believe in own power as political beings
Who were the sans-culottes?
Artisans in cities who did not wear knee breeches to distinguish themselves from the privileged elite
Who constituted this popular movement?
Sans-culottes were working men and women of Paris - all were consumers in the marketplace
Why did the sans-culottes hate the privileged (les gros)?
Because they appeared to profit at the expense of the people
Government power decentralized (neighborhoods ruling themselves),
What did they want as far as government?
What happened on August 10, 1792?
The people of Paris stormed the Tuileries demanding equality nd nation
What did the people of Paris demand?
Right to vote and participate in a popular democracy
The working people were acting independently of other factions
What caused the bourgeois political leadership to need to maintain order?
What characterized revolutionary politics?
Where did the terms "left" and "right" originate?
Description of where people sat in the Assembly in relation to the podium
IN successsive parliamentary bodies
HOw wer political designations refined?
What was the Convention?
The Legislative body elected in September 1792 and was in charge of of determining the best form of government after the collapse of the monarchy (After the Legislative AssemblY)
September 21, 1792
When was the monarchy abolished from France?
September 22, 1792
When did the French Republic first come into being?
What was done to Louis XVI?
He was convicted of treason and was executed by guillotine on January 1793
HOw were the political factions of the Convention described?
Using terms borrowed from geography - Mountains on upper benches on the left
What side made up the Jacobins?
Who were the Jacobins?
The most radical element in the National Convention - supported democratic solutions and spoke in favor of the cause of people in the streets
Who were the Girodins?
The more moderate revolutionary faction
The Girodins and the Jacobins
What two factions made up the middle ranks of the bourgeoisie?
What did the Girondins control?
The renewed European war
What fragmented the democratic movement?
How did this affect the Girondins?
It caused their power to slip away
How did the revolution turn on them?
They became prisoners of the revolution when armed Parisians surrounded the National Convention in June 1793
Between August 1792 and June 1793
When did the Girondin power begin to slip away?
Who was working to weld a partnership between the sans-culottes and the Jacobins?
Who was Maximllian Robespierre?
He was the leader of the Mountain and the Jacobin Club - wrote lame poems, elected to the Estates-General, joined Jacobins and rose to power, took controversial stands on topics
Who was Robespierre's rival?
Goerges-Jacque Danton - opposed the war in 1792
What did Robespierre discover with the revolution?
That he was a skillful political tactician - gained a following and learned how to manipulate it