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Level 37

Voting Review

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the official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party-generally success in the nomination game requires momentum, money, and media attention
campaign strategy
the master game plan candidates lay out to guide their electoral campaign
national party convention
the supreme power within each of the parties the convention meets every 4 years to nominate the party's presidential and vice-presidential candidates and to write the party's platforms
a meeting of all state party leaders for selecting delegates to the national party convention-usually organized as a pyramid
presidential primaries
elections in which voters in a state vote for a candidate (or delegates pledged to him or her)-most delegates to the national party convention are chosen this way
McGovern-Fraser Commission
A commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in the response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation
national party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the Democratic national party convention
the recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention
national primary
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries which would replace these electoral methods with a nationwide primary held early in the election year
regional primaries
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries to replace these electoral methods with a series of primaries held in each geographic region
party platform
a political party's statement of it's goals and policies for the next four years platform is drafted prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candid…
direct mail
a high-tech method of raising money for a political cause or candidate
Federal Election Campaign Act
a law passed un 1974 for reforming campaign finances, the act created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions
Federal Election Commission
A six member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974, the FEC administers and enforces campaign finances law
Presidential Election Campaign Fund
Money from the $3 federal income tax check-off goes into this fund, which is then distributed to qualified candidates to subsidize their presidential campaigns
matching funds
contributions of up to $250 are matched from the Presidential Election Campaign fund to candidates for the presidential nomination who qualify and agree to meet various conditions, such as limiting their overall spending
soft money
political contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grass-roots level or for generic party advertising (undisclosed money) - for a time such contributions were unlimited bc not mentioned in law until they were banned by the McCain-Feingold Act
527 groups
independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly seek the election of particular candidates -name comes from Section 527 of the fed…
political action committees (PACs)
funding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reform, they are a corporation, union or some other interest group that creates a political action committee and registers it with the REC which meticulously monitors their expenditures
selective perception
the phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predisposition
a characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders
A legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
initiative petition
a process permitted in some states whereby voters may put proposed changes in the state constitution to a vote if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a referendum
the legal right to vote, extended to the African Americans by the fifteenth amendment, to women by the nineteenth amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the twenty sixth amendment
Political Efficacy
A belief that you can take part in politics (internal) or that the government will respond to the citizenry (external).
Civic Duty
A belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs
voter registration
a system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advance of Election Day- a few states permit Election Day registration
Motor Voter Act
Passed in 1993, this act went into effect for the 1996 election
mandate theory of elections
the idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platform and politics
policy voting
electoral choices that are made on the basis of the voter's policy preferences and on the basis of where candidates stand on policy issues
electoral college
a unique American institution created by the Constitution providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties
retrospective voting
a theory of voting in which voters essentially ask the simple question: "What have you done for me lately?"
Super Tuesday
many states hold primary elections this day (splits media attention)
New Hampshire
Who has 1st primary?
Closed Primary (pro/con)
Pro: closed primary encourages party loyalty-Con: low participation
Open Primary (pro/con)
Pro: increase turnout Con: possible sabotage
Blanket Primary (pro/con)
Pro: Increased turnout Con: lacks party loyalty encourages split ticket voting
When were primaries created?
created during progressive era to ensure democratic process -takes power away from parties/bossess
Democratic National Convention 1968 (Riots)
-party in disarray over civil rights and war -led to McGovern-Fraser Commission (delegate selection open to all through election, led to superdelegate decision)
June 4th 1968
assassination of Bobby Kennedy (same day as California Primary) he would have gotten nomination and could have beaten Nixon
how does tv effect the national convention
tells us who the nominee and running mate are before the convention which leads to less coverage for national convention (people already know so less viewers)
before general election (surge)
What is the rally point for campaigns
How much can I give to the candidate of my choice in 2014?
-individuals: $2000 (plus tax =2600) per candidate -individuals: 10,000 per party per election -individuals: 10,000 per party per election -PACs: 5,00 per candidate per elections
Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
Can I finance my own campaign? = yes Justification: freedom of speech
hydraulic theory of money
money finds a way through obstacles
money laundering
funneling money without government knowing
helped the citizen to create laws. A bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers on the ballot with a petition.
how electorate has changed over time
more people today in electorate but less voter participation -voter turnout at 50 % for presidential and 35% for midterm, lower for local and state races
19th amendment
removed gender qualification for voting
property requirement for voting
removed in 1828 -big reason why Jackson won --> new people in electorate voted for him
15th Amendment
racial qualification removed for voting
24th amendment
removed poll tax for voting
26th Amendment
lowered voting age to 18 -direct result of soldiers in Vietnam war being allowed to fight for country but not vote
literacy tests for voting
removed in 1965 by voting rights act of 1965
explanations for why voter turnout is so low
-difficulty voting (registration, hard to get to polls) -too many elections (leads to voter fatigue) -cynical about political process (negative ads, scandal add to this)
McCain-Feingold Act (2002)
AKA: Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform -ban soft money
Level 38