Level 39
Level 40

Ideas as Structure: Political Culture & Ideology


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civic culture theory
A theory that each society has a distinctive mix of participatory, deferential, and subject political cultures, and that the mix influences political outcomes such as the likelihood of successful democracy.
collectivistic political cultures
Political cultures that support government action aimed at benefiting large numbers of people.
Confucianism
A set of beliefs based on the writings of Confucius that emphasize respect for authority, hard work, and an obligation by those in power to rule responsibly and in the interests of society as a whole.
conservative ideology
An ideology that advocates minimal regulation of the economy and decreased emphasis on income redistribution.
cultural heterogeneity
The case when a wide range of beliefs exists within a group.
cultural homogeneity
The case when members of a group are . relatively unified in their beliefs and system of meaning.
culture
Defined in two distinct but related ways: (1) as a particular group's underlying values, and (2) as a system of meaning that shapes the way members of groups make sense of the people and events they encounter.
defining events
One factor that can shape political culture; such events are dramatic, providing a shock to the existing political culture.
horizontal social relations
Social relations that highlight equality among members of society to help shape political and social decisions.
individualistic fallacy
The assumption that collective concepts like culture can be adequately measured by aggregating individual level data.
individualistic political cultures
Political cultures that discourage government involvement in society.
Islamism
An ideology advocating Islamic law as the basis of government structure and policies and as a way to immunize Muslim countries from the corrupting cultural influences of Western-led globalization.
Jeito
A key component of Brazilian political culture emphasizing and valuing the ability to get around social and political rules.
Jihad versus McWorid
Benjamin Barber's term for the tension between the forces of particularism, which draw on ethnic and tribal identity and local attachments, and the forces of globalization.
libertarian ideology
An ideology that seeks even more limited government in all facets of society than that promoted by conservatives.
Marxist ideology
An ideology that supports control of the government on behalf of the working class and the elimination of significant income differences.
moderate ideology
An ideology that advocates positions that fall between progressive and conservative approaches.
noblesse oblige
The belief among the British social, economic, and political elite that their position implies an obligation to enhance the quality of life for those less fortunate than themselves.
political culture
A given population's underlying set of values and beliefs about politics and system of meaning for interpreting politics.
Political Ideology
A coherent and consistent set of beliefs about who ought to rule, what principles rulers ought to follow, and what policies rulers ought to pursue.
postmaterialism theory
A theory associated with political scientist Ronald Inglehart that emphasizes causes and consequences of differences between those who value freedom and quality of life and those who value order and veconomic prosperity.
progressive ideology
An ideology that supports an active role for government in income redistribution through use of taxes and government programs.
reactionary ideology
An ideology that advocates a return to traditional social arrangements, including those that economically privilege one group over another.
repeated experiences
Events that recur or are sustained over time that can shape political culture.
social democratic ideology
An ideology that traditionally supported nationalization of industry but today focuses more on maintaining welfare state protections.
socialization
The process of transmitting components of a political culture to the next generation through social institutions, such as families, churches, and schools.
subsidiarity
An idea from Social Catholicism that individuals have a right to make decisions for themselves and that, as much as possible, families and small social organizations should provide economic protection and distribute social goods to individuals.
vertical social relations
Social relations in societies that emphasize an authority hierarchy.
welfare state
a social system in which the government takes responsibility for the economic well being of its citizens by providing programs and direct assistance
working-class deference
The belief by the lower classes, present throughout English and British history, that the British elite have the authority to rule over them.
Level 41