Level 46
Level 47

Bureaucracy


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BUREAUCRACY
a large, complex organization consisting of appointed officials.
RED TAPE
complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done.
LEGISLATIVE VETO
the rejection of a presidential or administrative-agency action by a vote of one or both houses of Congress without the consent of the president.
COMMITTEE CLEARANCE
the ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passing a law.
ANNUAL AUTHORIZATION
the yearly granting of permission to begin or continue a government agency/program.
TRUST FUNDS
funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget; the amounts are typically determined by the pre-existing law rather than by annual appropriations
APPROPRIATION
a legislative grant of money to finance a government program
AUTHORIZATION LEGISLATION
legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency.
ISSUE NETWORK
a network of people in Washington-based interest groups, on Congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass media who regularly discuss and advocate public policies (i.e. health care or auto safety)
Iron triangle
a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
NAME-REQUEST JOB
a job to be filled by a person whom a government agency has identified by name.
COMPETITIVE SERVICE
the government offices to which people are appointed on the grounds of merit as ascertained by a written examination or by the having met certain selection criteria (such as training, educational attainments, or prior experiences).
DISCRETIONARY AUTHORITY
the extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose course of action and make policies that are NOT spelled out in advance by laws.
LAISSEZ-FAIRE
an economic theory that government should NOT regulate or interfere with commerce.
SPOILS SYSTEM
another phrase for political patronage—that is, the practice of giving the fruits of a party's victory, such as jobs and contracts, to the loyal members of that party.
Level 48