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Emergence of Modern America


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american federation of labor
(GC2) , Samuel Gompers, a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.
andrew carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
assimilation
A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
bimetallism
A monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
Booker T. Washington
(1856-1915) Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was founder of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. Was criticized for "accomodating" segregation.
Boss Tweed/Tammany Hall
William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for…
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Civil Service Reform
Congress took action in the late 19th century to protect ethical politicians and create standards for political service; including, a civil service test for those seeking a job in government.
Coxey's Army
1893 - Group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief. Government arrested the leaders…
Custer Battle of Little Bighorn
1876 - General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
Dawes Sevarlty Act
Passed in 1887 by Senator Dawes, permitted the US government to grant citizenship to Native Americans after they lived on 160 acres of land for 25+ years and became civilized. Also allowed government to sell unused reservation land
Disenfranchisement
Black voters were blocked from voting by literacy tests, poll taxes, gerrymandering
Ellis island
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy.
Eugene Debs
1855-1926. American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.
Exodusters
The African Americans migrating to the Great Plains state (ie: Kansas & Oklahoma) in 1879 to escape conditions in the South
Free Silver
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver. Originally sprung from the Greenback labor party of 1861, from indebted farmers. Supported by the Demo-Pops of 1896. p.662
Gentleman's Agreement
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
Gilded Age
..., A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great indust…
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Granger Laws
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
Haymarket Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police.…
Helen Hunt Jackson's: A Century of Dishonor
written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881 to expose the atrocities the United States committed against Native Americans in the 19th century
Homestead act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Homestead strike
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The …
Hull House/Jane Addams
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
J.P. Morgan
A highly successful banker who bought out Carnegie. With Carnegie's holdings and some others, he launched U.S Steel and made it the first billion dollar corporation.
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Jane Addams
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women's Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.
Jim Crow laws
Any of the laws legalizing racial segregation of blacks and whites that were enacted in Southern states beginning in the 1880s and enforced through the 1950's
John Muir
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
John D. Rockefeller
A food merchant who entered the oil refining business and, in 1870, formed the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. Rockefeller ruthlessly use price wars, secret railroad rebate on oil shipments, and the Panic of …
Knights of Labor
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, deman…
laissez-faire economics
This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic system domin…
Lynchings
when small vigilante mobs or elaborately organized community events where an individual (typically black) was publicly hung due to a crime (true or perceived). Resulted from white supremacy or fear of black sexuality.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Melting Pot
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot.
Muckrackers
Journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics in order to bring about reform.
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional.
Nativism
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones.
Patronage
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons.
Plessy V. Ferguson 1896
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Political Machines
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
Populist Political Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Progressives
A group of reformers who worked to solve problems caused by the rapid industrial urban growth of the late 1800s.
Prohibition
any of several periods during which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages were restricted or illegal
Pullman Strike
During this 1894 strike workers at the __________ railroad car plant near Chicago went on strike to protest a wage cut of as much as 40%. This reduction in wages was unaccompanied by any …
Robber Barrons
The process of running other businesses out of business so that one's own business can prosper; includes Rockefeller and Morgan, was dishonest work and included bribing officials to get what they wanted.
Robert LaFollete
Progressive governor of Wisconsin who was elected in 1900. He limited campaign spending, He created a commission to regulate railroads and utilities so they wouldn't overcharge customers, He created a commission to oversee transportation, civil service & taxation.
Samuel Gompers
..., United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Settlement Houses
a welfare agency for needy families, combated juvenile delinquency, and assisted recent immigrants in learning the English language and in becoming citizens. Jane Addams of the Hull House Settlement in Chicago
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Social Darwinism
Survival of the fittest, A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background.
Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
Square Deal
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869.
The Great Strike of 1877
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence wa…
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Thomas Nast
A famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. His artwork was primarily based on political corruption. He helped people realize the corruption of some politicians
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Trust/Monoply
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
Tuskegee Institute
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
Upton Sinclair - The Jungle
The author who wrote a book about the horrors of food productions in 1906, the bad quality of meat and the dangerous working conditions.
Vertical/Horizontal intergration
beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental)
W.E.B Dubois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1909.
William J.B.W. Taft
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Brothers who built the first airplane glider and four-cylinder combustion engine for an airplane. This helped with communication, and mail services.
George Eastman
invented the first Kodak camera; was easy to carry around, did not have to immediately process photos. Journalists could take pictures now
W.E.B Dubois
believed differently that blacks should seek a liberal arts education so that they could have well educated leaders. Was the first to graduate from Harvard. Founded the Niagara Movement. ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL.
Niagara Movement
insisted that blacks should gain a liberal arts education so that they would be good leaders.
Poll Tax
an annual tax that was imposed before qualifying to vote.
Grandfather Clause
even if a man failed the literacy test and could not pay the poll tax, he could still vote if his father, or grandfather had been eligible to vote before January 1st.
Segregation
racial acts or laws that separated whites from black in certain public places.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a legal case that challenged the constitutionality of segregation. The court ruled that it was legal to have separate places for different races because it did not interfere with the 14th amendment. Created the doctrine of "separate but equal"
Debt Peonage
a system that bound labors into slavery in order to work off a debt to the employer. Mexicans working on the railroad.
Mark Twain
real name - Samuel Clemens, and was an author whose books have become classics, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
Rural Free Delivery
a system that brought packages to homes, so many people were ordering from mail and catalogs.
Level 6