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A situation in which European political elites not only are uncertain of whether to support more integration, but also face growing opposition to the EU from their citizens. This contrasts with the era of the permissive consensus.
A political ideology that opposes European integration and the current EU system. Euroskepticism comes in different forms; extreme anti-EU hostility is labeled "hard" by comparison with a "soft" type, which is critical merely of cer…
integration by stealth
A depiction of the early years of integration as deliberately focusing on technical and less salient aspects of pooling sovereignty, so as to expand supranationalism without contestation from domestic politics.
A reference to the early period of integration, when treaties and common policies were not very salient in national politics. Diplomatic deals cut by political elites were thus insulated from criticism, as citizens trusted t…
A referendum on an EU treaty that is held a second time because voters rejected it the first time. This has happened in Denmark and Ireland, whose voters rejected ratification of certain EU treaties. R…