Level 61
Level 62

Toward a New World


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Geocentric
Theory that the earth is the center of the universe.
Heliocentric
Theory that the sun is the center of the universe.
Scientific Method
A method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
Epicycles
[Ptolemaic] concentric spheres within spheres; "theory" developed to explain why the observations wouldnt match with the mathematical equations for the geocentric theory
Empiricism
The view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
Copernican Theory
[Heliocentric Idea] The earth is just another planet that orbits around the sun.
The English Royal Society
Published scientific papers and sponsored scientific meetings.
Dare to Know
the motto the enlightenment [Immanuel Kent]
Ecrasez I'infame!
[Voltaire] "Crush the Infamy" refers to the abuses of royalty and clergy.
Encyclopedia
The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts - The ultimate strength of the French philosophes their greatest achievement was this group effort. It was edited by Denis Diderot. The Encyclopedia sh…
Deism
The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny.
Enlightened Absolutism
European rulers who embraced many of the philosophes' reforms, monarchical government dedicated to rational strengthening of central absolutist administration at cost of lesser political power centers
Aristotelian world view
Motionless earth was fixed at center of universe, God was beyond.
Cartesian Dualism
Descartes view of the world as consisting of two fundamental entities matter and mind.
Copernican Hypothesis
the idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe; this had enormous scientific and religious implications.
Enlightenment
a world-view has played a large role in shaping the modern mind. The three central concepts of the Enlightenment were the use of reason, the scientific method, and progress.
Experimental Method
Galileos greatest achievement; rather than speculate about what might or should happen in an experiment, he conducted controlled experiments to find out what actually did happen.
General Will
is sacred and absolute, reflecting the common interests of all the people who have displeased the monarch as the holder of sovereign power, it is not necessarily the will of the majority.
Law of Inertia
a law formulated by Galileo that stated that rest was not the natural state of object. Rather, an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force.
Law of Universal Gravitation
every body in the universe attracts every body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportiona…
Philosophes
intellectuals in France who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their ignorant fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment.
Progress
the idea that with the proper method of discovering the laws of human existence, it was possible for humans to create better societies and better people.
Rationalism
nothing was to be accepted on faith, everything was to be submitted to the rational, critical, scientific way of thinking.
Salons
elegant private drawing rooms where talented and rich Parisian women held regular social gatherings to discuss literature, science and philosophy.
Separation of Powers
The division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government.
Skepticism
belief that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt and that humanitys best hope was open-minded toleration.
Tabula Rasa
a blank tablet, incorporated into Lockes belief that all ideas are derived from experience, and that the human mind at birth is like a blank tablet on which the environment writes the individuals understanding and beliefs.
Empirical Method
Gaining knowledge through the observation of events, the collection of data, and logical reasoning
Deductive Reasoning
Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Gresham College
Located in England. Leading place for the advancement of science. First time scientists had a honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.
Diderot
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
Bayle
measures infant development in three areas. mental, motor and behavior
Kepler
(1571-1630) Assistant to Tycho Brahe who believed in the Copernican view. He continued Brahe's observations and created three laws of planetary motion published between 1609 and 1619. They provided mathematical backing for heliocentrism and sugge…
Galileo
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible…
Bacon
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
Descartes
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Newton
(1642-1727) An English natural philosopher who studied at Cambridge and eventually developed the laws of movement found among the bodies of Earth. Spent his life dedicated to the study of mathematics (created calculus) and opt…
Montesquieu
The Spirit of the Laws; tried to use scientific method to find natural laws that govern the social and political relationships of human beings; identified 3 types of governments: republics, despotism, and monarchies; invented separation of powers
Voltaire
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Copernicus
1473-1543. Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution.
Brahe
(1546-1601) A Danish astronomer who designed and built new instruments for observing the heavens and trained many other astronomers. He rejected heliocentrism despite his discovery of a new star and comet that disproved Aristotle's theory.
Catherine the Great
(1762-1796) An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs.
Frederick the Great
(1712-1786), King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress.
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Joseph II
(r. 1780-1790) coregent with his mother (Maria Theresa) from 1765 until her death-controlled Catholic church closely; granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews; abolished serfdom; peasant labor to be converted into …
book by copernicus about heliocentric universe
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
New Astronomy or Celestial Physics
A book of Kepler's three famous laws of planetary motion:
Two New Sciences
Galileo Galilei described his experiment in his famous acceleration experiment, he showed that a uniform force, in this case, gravity, produced a uniform acceleration. In his Two Sciences Galileo described his painstaking method and conclusion. (p.598)
Principia
Newton's book which established the law of universal gravitation and banished Ptolemy's laws and universe for good.
Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds of 1686
writing by Fontanelle using his famed wit and humor and novelistic style, explains Copernican theory to the nonscientific community.
Historical and Critical Dictionary
demonstrating that human beliefs has been extremely varied and very often mistaken, he concluded that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt, a view known as skepticism.
The Spirit of the Laws
In this 1748 work on political theory Montesquieu argued that a country's political institutions should be determined by its unique geographic and social characteristics -- He also argues for the separation of government power among separate branches
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke, 1690, human mind has no innate ideas, what people know is not the world but the result of the interactions of the mind with the world
Encyclopedia: The Rational of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts
Diderot, to changed general way of thinking, attacked religious superstition, major weapon against old French society, advocated tolerance , low price of book = further spread of his ideas
The Social Contract
Book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Argued that the right kind of political order could allow people to be truly moral and free; an individual can achieve freedom by giving up their freedom for the good of the community.
Level 63