Level 70
Level 71

Collapse of the Soviet Union & Contemporary Europe


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Common Market
Established in 1957 by the Treaty of Rome, it promoted free trade to its members
European Union
A family of democratic countries committed to working together for peace and prosperity in Europe.
Schuman Plan
(May 1950)
Postmodernism
Contemporary philosophical and literary movement that rejects the modern Western belief in objective truth and instead champions the relative nature of reality and knowledge
Commonwealth of Independent States
Successor group to the Soviet Union
Vatican II
Perhaps the most significant church council since Trent (1545-1563); liberalized a number of Catholic practices such as the insistence on Latin Mass; also, advocated the ecumenical movement
Ecumenical
Important contemporary religious movement in which people of different faith traditions (Protestants, Catholics, Jews, Muslims, etc.) put aside their differences (and instead focus on what they have in common) to work for positive social change
Green
Name of the many pro-environment political parties that emerged throughout Europe during the 1970s
Martial Law
After the Solidarity party was outlawed and its leader Lech Walesa arrested, Poland was placed under military rule or __________
Star Wars
Nickname of President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative
Glasnost
Literally "openness"; Gorbachev's policy of encouraging Soviet citizens to openly discuss the pros and cons of the Soviet Union
Milosevic
This former Yugoslav president and ardent Serbian nationalist committed "ethnic cleansing" against the people of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, and died in 2006 while standing trial for crimes against humanity at The Hague
Euro
Primary currency of the European Union (new members have to adopt it)
Kohl
He was the first chancellor of the re-unified Germany and was bedeviled by the massive scope of re-invigorating the East German economy
Havel
This Czech playwright helped lead the "Velvet Revolution" of 1989 and was elected the first president of Czechoslovakia
Francis I
The current pope
Nationalism
Events such as the many decolonization movements in the post-WWII era, Kosovo's tense relationship with Serbia, and Chechen resistance demonstrate this ideology still plays a significant role in European and world affairs
Thatcher
This "Iron Lady" was the voice of British politics in the 1980s and best known for her conservative domestic and foreign policies; Ronald Reagan's European counterpart
Yeltsin
This first president of Russia helped put down a coup by "hard-liners" in the wake of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and was criticized for his handling of the independence movement in Chechnya
Counterterrorism
A calculated policy of direct retaliation against terrorists
Military Industrial Complex
Phrase popularized in Eisenhower's farewell address that depicts the often close relationship between scientific/industrial research and technology with the military; notion that much of the research monies for science and technology comes from military patronage
Demokratizatsiya
One of the planks of Gorbachev's "New Thinking," it allowed non-communists to run in elections and legalized non-communist political parties
John Paul II
Popular, vocal critic of the Polish communist state; first Polish pope who took conservative stances on abortion and female ordination (women becoming priests)
Chernobyl
This nuclear power disaster in 1986 made Europeans even more aware of potential environmental hazards
Global Village
Phrased coined and popularized by Marshall McLuhan that highlights the shrinking of the world due to developments in mass communications technology
Irish Republican Army
Extreme Irish political group (some would call them terrorists) committed to unifying Northern Ireland with the Republic of Ireland
Xenophobia
Fear of foreigners or immigrants
Honecker
This East German leader ruled with an iron fist (aided by his secret police, the Stasi) and opposed democratic reforms
Ceausescu
This Romanian leader was killed (along with his wife) for genocide in the aftermath of the fall of the communist Romanian government
Perestroika
Literally "restructuring"; a term applied to Gorbachev's economic, political, and social reforms in the Soviet Union
Article VI
Provision in the Soviet constitution that guaranteed the "leading role of the communist party," which virtually outlawed opposition parties (this key provision was struck down in 1989 as part of the "new thinking")
Evil Empire
What Ronald Reagan dubbed the Soviet Union in the early 1980s (which was a return to harsh Cold War rhetoric)
Sinatra Doctrine
Nickname of the new policy that emerged under Gorby by which the Soviet Union would no longer enforce the Brezhnev Doctrine and let satellite states go their "own way"
Digital
Nickname of our age, the Information Age
Boycott
to refuse something as a way to create pressure for change
Brezhnev
Doctrine by which the Soviet Union would intervene if socialism was threatened in another socialist state in eastern Europe
Central Planning
The Politburo's insistence on __________ led to a huge, complex bureaucracy that discouraged efficiency and reduced productivity
Pravda
Russian for "truth"; the Russian state newspaper dating back to the days of Lenin
Multiethnic
The USSR was a truly __________ country, containing 92 nationalities and 112 recognized languages
Nationalist Movements
The years 1988 to 1990 also witnessed the appearance of __________ in the republics that made up the Soviet Union
Shock Therapy
Russia, in its transition to a free market economy (dubbed "__________"), was plagued by economic hardship and social disarray, made worse by a dramatic rise in the activities of organized crime mobs
Common agricultural
In addition to having a single internal market for its members and a common currency, the EU also established a __________ policy, under which subsidies are provided to farmers to enable them to …
National
The European Union has been less successful in setting common foreign policy goals, primarily because individual nations still see foreign policy as a __________ prerogative and are reluctant to give it up to an overriding institution
Diversity
United in __________—motto of the European Union
Copenhagen
Criteria EU candidate nations must meet such as the requirement of having a stable democracy respecting human rights and the rule of law and a functioning market economy capable of competition within the EU
Beethoven
His Ninth Symphony is the anthem of the EU
Europe Day
May 9
Level 72