Level 78
Level 79

Absolutism & Constitutionalism in Europe


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Absolutism
A type of government where the king has complete control and claims he answers only to god
Thirty Year War
war in the first half of the seventeenth century between protestants and Catholics made up of four parts, Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, French and ended with the Peace of Westphalia
Protestant Union
(1608) all alliance formed by Lutheran princes in the Holy Roman Empire that eventually led to the Thirty Year's War
Catholic League
(1609) the Catholic response to the Protestant Union led to the Thirty Year's War
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish king who arrived in Germany to support the Protestant cause in the Thirty Year's War. Began the Swedish phase
Peace of Westphalia, 1648
a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Year's War. Conflicts over religion ended.
Henry (of Navarre) IV
inherited a devastated country (France) promised a "chicken in every pot" improved conditions by keeping peace. was protestant converted to Catholicism when put on throne but issued the edict of Nantes allowed protestant worship in France
Cardinal Richelieu
(1585-1642) first minister of the French crown. Helped to maintain power extended use of intendants. Also repress Protestantism, oversaw the siege of La Rochelle
Intendants
commissioners for each of France's thirty-two administrative districts. Appointed by and answering directly to the monarch, they were key elements in Richeliu's plan to centralize the French state.
Fronde
A series of violent uprising during the minority of Louis XIV triggered by oppressive taxation and growing royal authority; the last attempt of the French nobility to resist the king by arms. Orginiated from…
Louis XIV, the Sun King
(r. 1643- 1715) peak of absolutism in France longest reign in European history. Believed in the Divine Right of Kings
Divine Right of Kings
the doctrine that kings were established in their rule by God and were accountable only to God, In such a system , the will of God and that of the king becomes inseparable. Common in absolutism monarchies.
Versailles
1682 Louis moved his court to this newly renovated palace here grandeur showed off kings glory
Colbert
(1619-1683) Louis XIV controller general and financial genius apply mercantilism. Wants French to be self-sufficient. Founds the Company of the East Indies wants to compete for Asian trade with Dutch (fails). Wants Canada
Mercantilism
A system of economic regulations aimed at the increasing the power of the state
Peace of Utrecht
A series of treaties 1713-1715 that ended the War of the Spanish Succession ended French expansion in Europe and marked the rise of the British empire.
Hohenzollern
after the Peace of Utrecht the family in power in Prussia; ruled parts of eastern Germany as the imperial electors of Brandenburg. (Fredrick's)
Habsburg
Powerful family in the Holy Roman Empire becomes almost monarchs on Empire
Frederick William the Great Elector
(1640) determined to unify his provinces of Brandenburg, Prussia, and parts of the Rhine. Wants Brandenburg to be a great state big on Army
Frederick I
Frederick William the Great Electors son. Gains Prussia through marriage becomes king of Brandenburg- Prussia
Brandenburg
Northern European state later merges with Prussia under the Hohenzollern's
Frederick William I
Son of Frederick I big on Army. Established Prussian absolutism and transformed Prussia into a military state.
Frederick II
intellec…
Junkers
The nobility of Brandenburg and Prussia. Reluctant allies of Fredrick William in his consolidation of the Prussian state.
Mongol Yoke
The two-hundred year rule of the Mongol clan over the former territories of Kievan Rus, a medieval state centered in the city of Kiev and comprising portions of modern day Ukraine, Russia, and Belarussia. …
Chinggis Khan
(1162-1227) a Mongol khan (king) who ruled the mongols during the Mongol Yoke setting the stage for the rise of absolutism in Russia
Tsar
The Slavic word for Caesar; Ivan III initiated this title for the absolute ruler of Russia. First taken by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
Boyars
highest ranking Russian nobility
Cossacks
free groups and outlaw armies living on the steppes bordering Russia from the fourteenth century onward. Their numbers were increased by runaway peasants during the time of Ivan the Terrible these peasants were tryin…
Peter the Great
(r. 1682-1725) Russian Tsar interested in the modernization and state building of Russia. Tours Western Europe in disguise impressed with technology, crafts, and armies. Trains Russian Armies and crafts. Adds the land next to…
St. Petersburg
Peter the Great's new westernized capital on the Baltic Sea, to rival the great cities of Europe.
Queen Elizabeth I
rare female monarch popular with people but left no definite heir (cousin James becomes king)
James I
(r. 1603- 1625) English king after Elizabeth I believed a monarch is responsible only to god, against European due process of law
divine right
the idea that kings were established in their rule by God and were accountable only to God. In such a system, the will of God became inseparable with the will of the king. Often in a absolutism monarchy
Charles I
son of James I English King who believed a monarch is only responsible to god. Often argued with Parliament tries to rule without them and finance government by arbitrary non-parliamentary levies bringing the country into crisis
Puritans
members of a sixteenth- and seventeenth century reform movement within the Church of England that advocated "purifying" it of Roman Catholic elements such as bishops, elaborate ceremonials, and the wedding ring.
William Laud
(1573-1645) archbishop of Canterbury attempted to impose two more elements to church organization: a new prayer book and bishoprics. Rejected by Presbyterian Scots. Later impeached by the House of Commons
Oliver Cromwell
a member of House of Commons and a devout Puritan who headed the "new model army" against Charles I in the English civil war
New Model Army
The parliamentary army, under the command of Oliver Cromwell, that fought the army of Charles I in the English civil war
Protectorate
Cuba became a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power (U.S.)
Restoration, 1660
restoration of the monarchy and both houses of parliament after Protectorate. Brought Charles II to power
Test Act
Legislation, passed by the English parliament in 1673 designed to secure the position of the Anglican Church. It sought to suppress the influence of Puritans, Catholics, and other dissenters by denying them the righ…
Charles II
(r. 1660-1685) English king comes to power after the Restoration, 1660. Secret agreement with French King to re-catholicizes Europe in exchange for money
James II
(r. 1685- 1688) English king comes to power after Charles II, puts Roman Catholics in government, armies, and university positions. Throne taken away and given to Mary.
William (of Orange) and Mary
1689 Crowned king and queen of England after James II. They rightly recognized the supremacy of Parliament. Beginning to the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution, 1688
The period of time when William and Mary came into power. Marked the end of divine rights and the beginning to sovereignty being split between the king and parliament. Bill of Rights
John Locke, Second treatise on Civil Government
A work of political philosophy published in 1690 that argued government's only purpose was to defend the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. If a government oversteps its purpose and guidelines it becomes a tyranny
Stadholder
The executive office in each of the United Provinces of the Netherlands; in practice, this position was dominated by the Prince of Orange
Level 80