Level 11
Level 12

End of the Cold War & the Challenges of Globalizat

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the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
Henry Kissinger
United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford (born in 1923)
negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons
Helsinki 1975
an agreement by US, Canada, and all European nations regovnizing all borders established in Europe since the end of WWII; acknowledged sphere of influence of the Soviet Union
Salvador Allende
President of Chile from 1970 to 1973, a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a mili…
Augusto Pinochet
Chilean Military officer lead the government Junta of Chile which overthrew Allende in 1973.Ruled as a dictator until the country returned to democracy in 1990. Suspended civil liberties and human rights and made drastic econ…
Shah of Iran
Great friend of the US for two and a half decades but Iranians want to nationalize their oil and improve economy, sparks Iranian Revolution and Shah is overthrown (1979)
Six Day War 1967
Israel took control of the Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt, the Golan Heights from Syria, and the West Bank from Jordan.
Yom Kippur War 1973
Frustrated by their losses in the Six-Days War, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel during the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur on October 6, 1973. Israel counterattacked, won a decisive victory,…
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
Daniel Ortega
leader of the Sandinistas in Nicaragua. He introduced Socialist reforms in Nicaragua
Panama Canal
Jimmy Carter negotiated with Panama, saying that the United States and Panama would both control the Canal until 2000, at which time Panama would fully take control.
Anwar Sadat
Egyptian statesman who (as president of Egypt) negotiated a peace treaty with Menachem Begin (then prime minister of Israel) (1918-1981)
Menachem Begin
Israeli statesman (born in Russia) who (as prime minister of Israel) negotiated a peace treaty with Anwar Sadat (then the president of Egypt) (1913-1992)
Camp David Accords 1979
agreement reached between the leaders of Israel and Egypt after protracted negotiations brokered by President Carter; Israel surrendered land seized in earlier wars and Egypt recognized Israel as a nation.
Soviet Union Invasion of Afghanistan
The relationship between the Soviet Union and America diminished and the United States began to make its military force stronger.
Carter Doctrine
Warning that any attempt by outside forces to gain control of the Persian Gulf would be met with military force from the US; created because Soviets were in Afghanistan and too close to Persian Gulf oil
1952. Eisenhower Administration. Threatened to divert Iranian oil profit from US companies to Iran. Covert Ops funded by CIA, paid off crowds to become angry and riot, causing Mossedgeh to be removed and the Sha of Iran installed.
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites, when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)
Star Wars/SDI
Strategic Defensive Initiative, the idea of having satellites that could shoot down missiles
ABM 1972
most important Detente treaty- in which the US and the Soviet Union agreed to limit antiballistic missiles
A Nicaraguan rebel group that got financial support from the CIA. This group was formed as a response to the overthrowing of Anastazio Somoza Debayle
Iran-Contra Affair
President Reagan authorized the off-the-books sale of stolen weapons from the Pentagon to Iran in order to fund the Nicaraguan Contras; Congress had forbidden him to use government funds to support the Contras; helped …
Intermediate Nuclear Force; both superpowers agreed to get rid of their stockpiles of missiles and allowed each other to inspect the other side to prevent cheating
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty
Agreement between the United States and Russia to cut their long-range nuclear arsenals by half.
Gulf War 1991
Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait despite peace treaty and refusal to abandon Iraqi occupation
Saddam Hussein
Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran, his invasion of Kuwait led to the Gulf War (born in 1937)
General Manuel Noriega
overthrown by the US and late tried, convicted, and imprisoned for drug trafficking
Dayton Peace Accords
1995 peace agreement ending the war over the former Yugoslavia, b/t Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
September 11, 2001
Islamic suicide atttacks on Both World Trade center buildings in New York and on the Pentagon in Virginia
Level 13