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Level 16

Post-War Treaties & Soviet Russia

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Bolshevik Russian forces
Anti-Red forces, mostly the Tsar's old generals who wanted a return to the "old Russia" aka the way things were before the Tsar fell
Independent forces who were against both the Reds and Whites, these were SR's, independent parties, and some peasants
Czech Legion
A volunteer army made up of Czechs and Slovaks.
Founded by the Bolsheviks, their job was to root out any anti-government activity. The fact that they were given almost unprecedented power to kill, arrest, and execute caused pandemonium in Russia, which was later named "The Red Terror"
Crop Requisitioning
Majority of crops requisitioned for redistribution by government authorities, part of "war communism"
Taking private assets into public ownership and having the State operate them
War Guilt Clause
Germany was forced, in the Treaty or Versailles, to admit that they caused the entire war.
Germany had to pay for all of the civilian damage in the war (until 1984!).
League of Nations
A collective security organization founded in 1919 after WWI. Ended in 1946 and was replaced by the United Nations.
Vladimir Lenin
head of the Bolshevik party; initiated many of the most controversial plans
Leon Trotsky
Bolshevik/Communist/Red, People's Commissar of War, and founder of the Red Army. The public face of the Reds.
Admiral Kochak
One of the main anti-Bolshevik leaders.
General Denikin
one of the foremost commanders of the Russian White Army
Georges Clemenceau
French Prime Minister. Insisted upon humiliation of Germany at Paris Peace Conference. Viewed WWI as a win for France and a defeat for Germany (but did think G was larger economically). Jeopardized French positio…
David Lloyd George
Agreed with the British People's need for revenge on Germany and very concerned of the spread of Communism.
Woodrow Wilson
Disagreed with pre-existing agreements before Conference. Caused disagreement between the Big Four. His idea of the 14 Points at the Treaty of Versailles. Supported the League of Nations, although US did not join.
Vittorio Orlando
P.M. of Italy. Went into Conference thinking Italy would get a ton of land, but that was not the case. Italy's relationship with the Allies done, due to no land and being ignored by other leaders. Left Conference early.
Paris Peace Conference
Conference after WWI between all the countries involved
Treaty of Versailles
provoked a lasting resentment and discontent
Treaty of Trianon
-Hungary lost 2/3 of its land
Treaty of Sèvres
Last of the WWI treaties, but never ratified by Turkey and Lausanne replaced it
Red Terror
Killing, murder, and execution done by the CHEKA or secret service, also included burning crops
War Communism
A combination of war needs & ideological
War with Poland
Bolsheviks vs Poles for Polish independence and Ukraine and Belarus
Kronstadt Revolt
An unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks, which later drove Lenin to suggest and create the NEP (to loosen their economic hold on Russia).
New Economic Policy (NEP)
A policy proposed by Lenin, to solve the problem of Russia's ruined economy caused by the Russian Civil War.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Created by combining numerous Republics.
The idea that everyone would own the land and farm equal portions of it together
Committee responsible for economic planning in the Soviet Union
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial produc…
Feliz Dzerzhinsky
founder and head of the CHEKA
Admiral Kolchak
Russian Navy Commander who became the supreme leader of the White forces
self determination
result of plebiscite provided the excuse of Austrian __________ for Hitler
With Germany
Treaty of Versailles
With Austria
Treaty of St. Germain
Treaty of Neuilly
Ottoman Empire
Treaty of Sevres
Policy introduced by Lenin after the Russian Civil War, encouraged small business (and a little bit of capitalism) it got production up to Russia's pre-war levels
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Soviet Union, first Communist nation in the entire world
Five Year Plans
Made by Stalin, their goal was to ensure rapid industrialization
The Great Purge
1936-1938 "Old Bolsheviks" were convicted and executed or sent into exile; most of the highest ranking officers of the Red Army were convicted and executed; 1.5-2 million people were arrested for "counterrevolutionary activities" or polit…
Level 17