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Level 18

US Post War & Cold War Boom


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Levittown
These homes looked exactly alike, and certain zoning laws ensured that they would stay the same.
Baby Boom
As soldiers returned from WWII and settled into family life, they contributed to an unprecedented population explosion.
Conglomerates
is a major corporation that includes smaller a number of smaller companies in unrelated industries
Franchises
Is a company that offers similar products of services in many locations
Dr. Jonas Salk
developed a cure for pollo
The Feminine Mystique
Written by Betty Friedan; spoke out against the norm of women
The Suburbs
cities with houses built the she
Television
entertainment and news
Consumerism
the idea of buying material goods, came to be equated with success
Planned obsolescence
manufacturers purposely designed products to become obsolete in a short period of time
Technology/appliances
Televisions
Beatniks
followers of the beat movement lived nonconformist lives.
Chuck Berry
brought rock n roll to a frantic pitch of popularity among the newly affluent teens who bought their records.
Elvis Presley
brought rock n roll to a frantic pitch of popularity among the newly affluent teens who bought their records.
The United Nations
An organization of nations that was formed in 1945 to promote peace, security, and international cooperation.
Truman becomes president
The Buck Stops here
Potsdam Conference
The big three-US, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union- met at the final wartime conference at Potsdam. Germany split into 2, Berlin split into 4.
Soviet goals
Encourage Communism
Containment
A U.S. diplomatic policy adopted by the Truman administration to contain Communist power within its existing boundaries.
Satellite Nations
The countries that Stalin had installed a communist government in.
Iron Curtain
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
democratic
What government the west side of the iron Curtain
communist
What government was the east side of the iron curtain
Truman Doctrine
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Marshall Plan
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
The Berlin Aircraft
After Stalin closed off all supplies to his side of Berlin, the US started sending in care packages full of essentials for the people of Berlin.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
China becomes a Communist Country
Communist would gain the peasants trust by encouraging them to learn to read and they helped to improve food production
Chiang Kai-shek
Nationalist leader supported by the US
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Renewed Civil war
The peoples Republic of China
The Korean War
On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea
38th parallel
The parallel that split Korea essentially into half. The northern half was concurred by soviets, therefore instituting a communist government where as the south was conquered by the US instituting a democratic government
Republic of Korea
The south of Korea.
Democratic People's Republic
The North of Korea
North Korea attacks South Korea
North Korea invaded south Korea, Russia could not veto UN's decision to institute military action in South Korea.
The US fights in Korea
MacArthur planned a surprise attack in the North Korean territory, cause the North Korean army to have to go back towards the 38th parallel
The Chinese Fight back
Chinese supported North Korea, for they wanted a communist buffer between them and the US
MacArthur Versus Truman
MacArthur wanted to use the nuclear weapon against China, he went against Truman, and Truman fired him.
Settling for Stalemate
Soviet Union suggested a stalemate, and thus one was settled
Loyalty Review Board
Strongly anti-Communist Republicans began to accuse Truman of being soft on communism. Consequently, in March 1947, President Truman issued an executive order setting up the Federal Employee Loyalty Program, which included the Loyalty Review Bo…
The House of UN-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
The most famous of these was the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). HUAC first made headlines in 1947, when it began to investigate Communist influence in the movie industry. The committee believed that Communists …
The Hollywood Ten
Ten "unfriendly" witnesses were called to testify but refused. These men, known as the Hollywood Ten, decided not to c ooperate because they believed that the hearings were unconstitutional
The McCarren Act
This made it unlawful to plan any action that might lead to the establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in the United States
Alger Hiss
of spying for the Soviet Union
Richard Nixon (defended Alger Hiss)
Key players in the Alger Hiss case
Whittaker Chambers (accuser)
produced microfilm of government documents that he claimed had been typed on Hiss's typewriter. Too many years had passed for government prosecutors to charge Hiss with espionage, but a jury convicted him of perjury—for l…
Richard Nixon
Conservative Republican congressman gained fame for defending Alger Hiss
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
minor activist in the American Communist Party. When asked if they were communist they pleaded the 5th. They said they were being persecuted because they were both Jewish and held radical beliefs. They were found guilty of espionage.
Joseph McCarthy launches his "witch hunt"
Joseph McCarthy, a Republican senator from Wisonsin, needed a winning
McCarthyism
Accusations without proof
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Act outlawed segregation in public facilities
Plessy v Feruson
the Supreme Court ruled that this "separate but equal" law did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment, which guarantees all Americans equal treatment under the law.
Jim Crow laws
laws that enforced segregation between whites and blacks in transport and public facilities and even outlawed marriage between the two racial groups
Great Migration
The movement of all colored people to places were segregation was not allowed
De Facto Segregation
segregation that exists by practice and custom
de jure segregation
segregation by law
Roosevelt's Executive Order 8022
eliminate segregation in military
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
1950s, 1960s events
Brown v Board of Education
Brown v Board of Education
In this case, the father of eight-year-old Linda Brown had charged the board of education of Topeka, Kansas, with violating Linda's rights by denying her admission to an allwhite elementary school four blocks from…
Thurgood Marshall (NCAAP)
argued on the behalf of the minority, fighting for their rights.
Little Rock Nine
nine African American students who had volunteered to integrate Little Rock's Central High School as the first step in Blossom's plan.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
A elderly colored women- Rosa Parks- refused to give up her seat in a white seating area, and assisted in starting the boycotting of all public trasnportation
Rosa Parks
Member of the NAACP and the Women's Political Council
Martin Luther King Jr
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Its purpose was "to carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship." Using African-American churches as a base, the SCLC planned to stage protests and demonstrations throughout the South. The leaders hope…
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee (SNCC)
In April 1960, Baker helped students at Shaw University, an African-American university in Raleigh, North Carolina, to organize a national protest group
Sit Ins
In 1942 in Chicago, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) had staged the first sit-ins, in which African-American protesters sat down at segregated lunch counters and refused to leave until they were served.
The Freedom Rides
Peck and other freedom riders hoped to provoke a violent reaction that would convince the Kennedy administration to enforce the law
1963 Birmingham, Alabama Demonstrations/ Letter from a Birmingham Jail
Demonstration on Good Friday, lead King and others to jail. While in jail King wrote to Alabama leaders dictating how cruel their acts are by keeping this city segregated.
1963 March on Washington/ "I Have a Dream" Speech
On August 28, 1963, more than 250,000 people—including about 75,000 whites—converged on the nation's capital. They assembled on the grassy lawn of the Washington Monument and marched to the Lincoln Memorial. There, people listene…
Civil Rights Act of 1964
allowed the federal government to sue city school boards who refused to integrate schools
Voting Rights Act of 1965
abolished registration literacy tests
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Established Federal Commission on civil rights
Civil Right act of 1964
Banned most discrimination in employment and in public accommodations
Eliminated Voter literacy tests
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of most housing
Malcolm X
declared to a Harlem audience, "If you think we are here to tell you to love the white man, you have come to the wrong place." promoted violence in trying to get rights
Urban Riots
Harlem Riot
Harlem Riot
race riots that killed many colored people in harlem
Watts Riot
race riot that killed many people in LA
The Kerner Commission
which President Johnson had appointed to study the causes of urban violence, issued its 200,000-word report. In it, the panel named one main cause: white racism. Said the report: "This is our basic conclusion:…
Stokely Carmichael
Black Power
The Black Panthers
Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded a political party known as the Black Panthers to fight police brutality in the ghetto. The party advocated self sufficiency for African-American communities, as well as full employment…
Black Power
a movement promoting African Americans' control of their own political and cultural organisations with the goals of promoting pride in their race and achieving equality
established Black Panthers
Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
James Meredith
the man who had integrated the University of Mississippi, set out on a 225-mile "walk against fear." Meredith planned to walk all the way from the Tennessee border to Jackson, but he was sho…
Lyndon Baines Johnson
Who takes over after JFK
Freedom Summer
Meanwhile, the right of all African Americans to vote remained elusive. In 1964, CORE and SNCC workers in the South began registering as many African Americans as they could to vote. They hoped their camp…
Frannie Lou Hamer
African Americans needed a voice in the political arena if sweeping change was to occur. In order to gain a seat in Mississippi's all- white Democratic Party, SNCC organized the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MF…
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
look to Frannie Lou Hamer
Selma
The place were the voting acts started arising
feminism
a doctrine or movement advocating equal rights for women in social and political life
National Organization for Women (NOW)
created by Betty Friedan, it pursued women's goals
Gloria Steinmen
Forms the National Women's Political Caucus and the magazine Ms.
Roe v Wade
that women do have the right to choose an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. Some thought the ruling might "bring to an end the emotional and divisive public argument. . …
Equal Rights Amendment in 1972
The amendment then needed ratification by 38 states to become part of the Constitution. First introduced to Congress in 1923, the ERA would guarantee that both men and women would enjoy the same rights…
Phyllis Schlafty
along with conservative religious groups, political organizations, and many anti-feminists, felt that the ERA would lead to "a parade of horribles," such as the drafting of women, the end of laws protecting homemakers, the…
Level 19