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Level 22

Rise of China


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Terra Cotta Army of Qin Shi Huang
What 1974 discovery in China revealed a great civilization?
7
How many figures were buried in the Terra Cotta Army?
No. Each were unique.
Were the figures of the Terra Cotta Army all the same?
4
How many pits were the Terra Cotta Army made up of?
soldiers, horses, court members
What sorts of things were apart of the Terra Cotta Army?
Quin (pronounced Chin)
Who created the Terra Cota Army/ Mausoleum?
Quin
Who is China named for?
only a portion
Has all of the Terra Cotta Army been explored?
What's a lesson about China?
unity/power of military. powerful emperors brought about great achievements in ancient China.
mountains/desert
What geographic barrier set China apart from other civilizations from the west/southwest?
desert
What geographic barrier set China apart from other civilizations from the north?
Pacific Ocean
What geographic barrier set China apart from other civilizations from the east?
rain forest
What geographic barrier set China apart from other civilizations from the southeast?
What was the impact of China's isolation?
Center of the Earth perception. Unique culture developed with only minimal outside influence.
farmers
How did river valleys influence Chinese lifestyle?
nomads
How did harsh terrain influence Chinese lifestyle?
fishermen/traders
How did oceans influence Chinese lifestyle?
Huang River/Yellow River valley
Where did Chinese history begin?
Where does the name Huang River/Yellow River come from?
loess, yellow dust that settles in rivers causing them to overflow
Need to control rivers
What led to cooperation in China?
1766 BC
In what year did 9 dynasties control the region politically?
9
How many dynasties controlled the region politically in around 1766 BC?
1122 BC
When did the Shang dynasty end?
1911 AD
When did the Qing dynasty end?
Shang
What was the first Chinese dynasty?
Qing
What was the last dynasty?
communist
What government was the east side of the iron curtain
Shang dynasty. 1766 BC.
What dynasty has the first written records? What is it dated back to?
Could have their been more dynasties before the Shang?
Yes. They are just the first with written records, so we don't know about anything before then.
princes/nobles
Who ruled most of the land during the Shang dynasty?
What do Shang tombs resemble?
Egyptian tombs. There are items necessary for afterlife.
Who overthrew Shang?
Zhou people rebelled 1122 BC.
Mandate of Heaven. Said rulers must treat people well.
What did the Zhou people claim when they took over?
What did the Zhou people explain?
dynastic cycle. Heaven allowed rule that was good.
signs of disfavor
What did the Zhou people view natural disasters as?
How did Zhou thrive?
successful money, economy, trade, feudal system
What sort of coins did the Zhou have?
coins with holes. (could put on rope or something)
What is a feudal system?
land grants to loyal supporters
provided links to gods
What was the role of rulers in Chinese religious practice?
Confucianism and Daoism
What two major belief systems took root during Zhou China?
What was Confucianism?
philosophy urging social order & good government
What was Daoism?
philosophy urging harmony with nature. actually means "the way."
Chinese philosopher
Who was Confucius?
551-479 BC
What years did Confucius live from?
Chinese culture
What are Confucius' teachings rooted in?
What are Confucius' two key themes?
Importance of family and respect for elders
universal truths
What do Confucius' quotes express?
Okay.
Become familiar with common Confucius quotes.
Kong Fuzi
What is the Chinese name for Confucius?
Analects
What is the name of the compilation of quotes made by Confucius' students?
What are the five relationships that shape behavior according to Confucius?
Ruler to subject, Father to son, Husband to wife, Elder brother to younger brother, Friend to friend(only equal relationship)
How did Confucianism ensure social order?
taught people to accept their place and duties in society
Who began Daoist teaching?
Philosopher Laozi said find the Dao (the way) of the universe and reject authority.
Harmony with nature.
What was the key to Daoism?
hermits, artists, or poets.
What did many followers of Daoism become?
the Great Wall of China
What wonder of the world is located in China?
northern invaders
What did the Great Wall of China protect China from?
How long is the Great Wall of China?
4000 miles long/ 25' high/topped with brick road
the power of China's resources/leadership
What was the Great Wall symbolic of?
What is a garrison?
small towers in the Great Wall of china where you can watch for approachers
What is a classic civilization?
a civilization that serves as a model for later cultures
Qin Shi Huangdi. emperor. Qin.
Classic China began under __________, the first __________ of the __________ Dynasty 221 BC.
Zhou. legalism. strength. goodness.
Qin conquered __________ dynasty and became a brutal ruler who practiced __________, a style of governing that contends that __________, not __________ should be utilized to govern effectively.
How did Qin impose allegiance?
He used military rule, gave the nobles' land to peasants, built roads, and made laws to unite China.
What were Qin's greatest accomplishments?
Connecting parts of the Great Wall and building the Terra Cotta Army.
the country of China
What did Qin give his name to?
No
Can you see the Great Wall from space?
People revolted against harsh rule.
What caused the Qin Dynasty's downfall?
about 400 years. 202 BC to 220 AD.
How long did the Han Dynasty last and for what years?
Wudi
Who is/was the most famous Han?
Diplomacy
The art or practice of conducting foreign relations through discussion and negotiation.
How did Wudi restore order/justice?
lowered taxes, eased legalism, used Confucian advisors, built roads/canals, organized economy
What was impact of Han expansionism?
trade along 4000 mile Silk Road
Reformed government job systems
What was the impact of Confucianism?
civil servants motivated to do good
What did reformed government job systems motivate?
Confucianism
What did civil servants study that motivated them to do good?
by merit, not family connections
What did civil servants receive position by?
581 AD
What year was the decline of Han by?
greed/corruption undermined Emperor's rule
What happened that motivated the dynastic cycle to continue in the Han?
peasants revolted. warlords took over.
Who revolted and who took over during the Han that wasn't good?
Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming
What four dynasties followed the Sui?
China broke apart.
What happened when the Han dynasty collapsed in 220AD?
Period of 3 kingdoms began.
What period began after China broke apart after the Han dynasty?
Flourished for about 400 years.
Did the Period of 3 kingdoms flourish or not? How many years was this for?
When did the Period of 3 kingdoms last until?
the unifications of the Sui dynasty in 581 and the Tang Dynasty in 618 AD
What is the dynastic cycle?
The Chinese dynastic cycle is a cycle of leadership in China were a general unit found in China. They are formed to rule the different regions. After some time rivalry begins between family member…
It was larger and stretched west.
How did the Tang dynasty compare to the Han and the ones before it?
How did Tang rulers extend their control over Chinese people?
Rebuilt bureaucracy. Used land reforms to weaken power of large landowners.
Empress Wu Zhao
Who was the only female emperor of China?
When did Empress Wu Zhao rule?
in late 600s during Tang era
cunning & ambitious
Describe Empress Wu Zhao.
Rose to power when her husband died
How did Empress Wu Zhao rise to power?
50 years
How long did Empress Wu Zhao rule?
Ruled during the peak of Tang dynasty culture.
Was China successful or not successful during the time of Empress Wu Zhao?
Did women gain any rights while Empress Wu Zhao ruled?
yes, but they lost most of their rights after she was out of power.
corruption, drought, famine, rebellion
Why did the Tang fall?
dynastic cycle
What are corruption, drought, famine, and rebellion classified as?
907 AD
What year did the dynastic occur involving Tang?
mandate of heaven
What is the dynastic cycle known as?
Which dynasty followed the Tang?
The Song dynasty in 960
new type of fast-growing rice
What was the Golden Age do to?
led to surplus creating time for trade, education, arts
What did the new type of fast-growing rice lead to?
What was the Grand Canal?
a canal linking rivers used to ship food more quickly
slaves
Who built the Grand Canal?
government issued paper money
What invention helped Chinese trade prosper?
gentry and peasantry
How was society structured?
wealthy landowners
Who were gentry?
Who were peasantry?
most of population who farmed land and made extra money from handicrafts
Did social mobility exist?
Peasants who received education could take civil service exams. Slaves would not change status.
What occupation was viewed with disdain? Why?
Merchants. Viewed as achieving wealth from work of others.
more than in later eras
Did women have rights during the Tang/Song era?
couldn't keep dowry, couldn't remarry, subject to foot binding
What was wrong with being a woman in the Tang/Song era?
lily-shaped
What type of foot were women trying to get from binding?
1/2 normal size
How much smaller was a bound foot?
What did having bound feet make women?
made them more dependent upon their husbands
Economically, socially, politically
What were achievements of Tang and Song?
What is the Forbidden City?
During Ming and Qing dynasties it was home of the emperors of China
Why was the Forbidden City called forbidden?
The 900 room-structure of stones and wood built in 1406 was home to emperors and their households for 500 years.
Where was the Forbidden City located? What did it serve as?
Beijing. Served as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government.
Why wasn't the Forbidden City 1000 rooms?
Heaven was supposed to be 1000 rooms.
What is the forbidden city today?
A museum and one of the most visited sites in China.
traditional Chinese palatial architecture
What does the Forbidden City exemplify?
a World Heritage Site
What was the Forbidden City declared to be in 1987?
Who listed the Forbidden City as the largest collection of what in the world?
UNESCO listed it as the largest collection of preserved wooden structures in the world.
Level 23