Level 24
Level 25

Cooperation & Competition


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cooperative interactions
the essence of teamwork
cooperation
based on mutual goals that encourage trust and the ability to rely on others
competition
basis of capitalism because it encourages innovation, lower prices, and motivation.
mixed-motive situations
create "social dilemmas" for participants; being cooperative and competitive
culture, personality, and organizational rewards
why are people misperceive a cooperative situation and turn it into a competitive one?
individualists
personality type that defines success relative to personal goals; do not compare performance to others; may or may not care about success of group. Group success only important if they adopted group's goal for themselves
US
this country has an individualists culture that promotes competition; emphasizing individualism, freedom, capitalism, and personal success to support the value of competition.
Japan
Stalin now entered war with Japan, under the conditions that he/ the USSR would gain the South Sakhalin and Ku-rile Islands.
cooperators
personality type that focuses on the group; concerned about their own outcomes and the outcomes of others; attempt to make group successful and distribute rewards equally
competitors
personality type that views a situation as an opportunity to win; define success relative to others' performances. Success is defined by performing better than others.
inability to share rewards
the factor that most encourages unhealthy competition within organizations; affects individuals and organizational units
managers
the most competitive employees, acting in highly political ways in order to succeed; behavior demonstrates competition is key to success.
organizational reward system
the most useful factor that encourages competition when it is not appropriate
personality differences
stable and enduring traits that are difficult to change; there is little a team can do to change this in a competitive manner
individual competition
disrupts the group's focus on its common goals, creates confusion about goals and creates distrust that reduces communication within the team
group competition
creates problems regardless of the group's success
communication
distrust created by mixed goals leads to reduced __________, which requires trust.
groups
more likely to act competitively with each other than individuals
social identity theory
a person's sense of self-worth is connected to the groups to which he or she belongs; they view the group as superior and support and attack the out-group.
cohesion group spirit
when a team enters a competition, the team experiences an increase in __________ and __________.
productivity efficiency
in the short run, team competition may increase __________ and __________.
problems
in the long run, team competition increases __________.
superiority
causes winners to ignore problems which go unsolved
blaming scapegoating
losing teams enter into a period of __________ and __________.
organizations goals feedback
competition between __________ can help improve productivity by providing motivating __________ and __________ about performance.
independent
competition may be positive in an organization when jobs are __________, not interdependent.
internal competition
can lead to sabotaged work, unjustified criticism, and withholding of information and resources
benefits of competition
all team members are motivated by team's goals
task
benefits of cooperation at work depend on the __________.
social
cooperation provides the foundation for __________ relations of group members.
cooperation trust safety
three preconditions for allowing constructive controversy to occur
conformity unhealthy agreement
two problems with cooperation
problem with conformity
can make team resistant to outside influence and changes in the way it operates
benefit of conformity
when group is functioning well and has good performance norms
Abilene paradox
describes a problem with group decision making caused by members trying to be friendly and cooperative
unhealthy agreement
when a team's desire to reach agreement on an issue becomes more important than its motivation to find a good solution; team members look for the first acceptable solution or go along with the lead…
poor decisions
caused by the search for quick solutions and avoidance or conflict
motivate individual performance
benefits of competitive rewards
benefits of cooperative rewards
promote trust, cohesiveness, and mutual support
speed
competitive rewards encourage __________.
accuracy
cooperative rewards encourage discussion, collaboration, and information sharing which may improve __________.
social loafing
argument against cooperative reward; can be improved through competitive rewards.
goals
one approach to forming bonds between groups is through the use of superordinate __________
superodinate goals
a common goal that all of the groups accept as important
prejudice conflicts
by working on superordinate goals, __________ and __________ decrease.
cooperation competition
__________ encourages trust but __________ leads to a breakdown in trust
improves trust
honesty, number of interactions between members, the number of helping experiences
common goals and rebuilding trust and communication
ways to resolve negative impacts of competition
decision making
cooperation improves __________ because it increases task-related conflict
transitioning to cooperation
problem for competitive situations
act cooperatively
strategies to transition to cooperation
Level 26