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individual empire named for the Franks that began to develop after the Treaty of Verdun in 843
king who began the Capetian line of kings
French line of kings that marked the beginning of the modern French nation
tiny patch of land that was Hugh Capet's feudal domain
the city that Clovis made the French capital in 507
French king who strengthened his power, authority, and dominance
Philip II (Philip Augustus)
king who made the French monarchy stronger than any other single noble in France; accompanied Richard I in the crusade of kings
Philip II's grandson who is remembered for improving French laws in ways that appealed to the people but also increased his own power
French king who quarreled with Pope Boniface VIII over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent; arrested Boniface VIII and established the Estates-General
pope who quarreled with Philip IV over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent; was arrested by Philip and died shortly afterward
weak French version of Parliament established by Philip IV
House of Valois
line of kings that claimed the throne of France following the Capetian line, creating an immediate excuse for the Hundred Years' War
date of the death of the last Carolingian king
Act of Supremacy
1534 Declared the king to be head of the English church rather than the Pope (created by Henry VIII).
(1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles.
Anne of Austria
She is wife on the dead king Louis XIII. She becomes regent over her son and successor of Louis XIII, Louis XIV. But she allowed Cardinal Mazarin, Richelieu's trained successor, to dominate the government.
Due to the Army's desire for more power, the first Rump Parliament was dissolved, and a new Parliament was formed, made up of 138 men judged by Cromwell and his followers as honest and n…
Battle of the Boyne
William III's army defeated James II's army, making him officially the king of England. James II fled to France.
Bill of Rights
(1689): No law could be suspended by the king; no taxes or army without Parliament's consent; no subject could be arrested or detained without legal process
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which he was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism.
(1824-1830) The final Bourbon monarch of France was determined to restore as much of absolutism as possible. He was a reactionary. His government passed unpopular laws limiting press freedom and making sacrilege a capital offe…
Swedish king who organized the Swedish forces during the Great Northern War, after defeating the Russians he went to invade Poland and Russia had a chance to reorganize
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Declaration of Breda
agreement between Charles II and Parliament; parliament would deal with issues of religion and land and they put Charles II on budget.
Defenestration of Prague
(1618) The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Edict of Restitution
Imperial law that prohibited all Calvinist worship and restored Catholic ownership of land stolen by the Protestant Princes of the Reformation.
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, became King at 9 years old, yet dies at 16. Sympathetic to the Reformation, legalizes the marrying of clergy. Anglican leaders (Cranmer) influence most of these changes.
Elector of Brandenburg
Hohenzollern family; their right to help choose the Holy Roman emperor with six others bestowed prestige, but they had no military strength whatsoever.
(1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time.
(r. 1619-1637) Austrian Habsburg king who began to implement absolutist policies in Austria by reducing the power of the Bohemian Estates.
Francis, Duke of Guise
He had led the french to victory over Germany at Metz in 1552. He captured Calais from the English. He was one of the leaders of the French Wars of Religion, and massacred the Hugue…
He was the Calvinist elector of the Palatinate to who the Protestant Bohemians rallied around. Eventually his troops would be defeated at the Battle of the White Mountains by a combined Hapsburg-Spanish force.
The Glorious Revolution
1688: When King James II lost his alias and Parliament invited his daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange to assume the throne. It changed the power and strategy of colonies expanding in…
Great Northern War
Broke out as Peter attacked Sweden(with assistance from Poland and Denmark) in his quest to establish a Russian trading port on the Baltic. After being routed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western m…
Henry of Navarre
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, s…
He was the duke of Richmond who defeated the last Yorkist king Richard III at Bosworth Field in 1485 and created his own dynasty.
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry establi…
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
was king of Bohemia and king of the Romans (king of Germany) from 1562, king of Hungary and Croatia from 1563, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from 1564 until…
(1602-1661), Successor of Cardinal Richelieu and his bad attempts to increase royal revenue and the state lead to the Fronde; ran the government while Louis VIII was still a child.
Catherine de' Medici
Was the wife of Henry II. She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89).
Battle of Narva
1700. Charles XII of Sweden with 8,000 men routed Peter's army of 40,000 men. Peter resolved to improve his army further and later came back at Battle of Poltava.
Battle of Naseby
English Civil War: (June 14, 1645, England) - Cromwell's New Model Army defeated Graham (Scottish Highlanders) and Cavaliers.
Pacification of Ghent
Agreement set forth by the Prince of Orange to unify the seventeen provinces under him, and Spain.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Petition of Right
1628. Signed by Charles I. No imprisonment without due cause; no taxes levied without Parliament's consent; soldiers not housed in private homes; no martial law during peace time.
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Bra…
(1660) Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
(1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
The Cromwell-controlled Parliament that proclaimed England a republic and abolished the House of Lords and the monarchy.
Solemn League and Covenant
During war, as price of support from Scottish army, Parliament adopted this, 1642, which prescribed that religion in England, Scotland, and Ireland should be made uniform "according to the word of God and the exa…
Sophia of Hanover
heiress to the crowns of England and Ireland and later of the crown of Great Britain. She was declared heir presumptive by the Act of Settlement - all of her children died and she …
Invincible group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English n…
The Test Act
Anti-Catholic laws passed by Parliament. Created a religious test for public office stating only members of the established Church of England were eligible for service.
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Treaty of Copenhagen
was signed on 27 May 1660, and marked the conclusion of the Second Northern War between Sweden and the alliance of Denmark-Norway and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Treaty of Nystadt
end of Great Northern War: gave Peter Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia; Sweden becomes secondary power while Russia becomes great; gave the land along the Baltic sea.
Peace of Oliva
was one of the peace treaties ending the Second Northern War.
Battle of Poltava
After a decisive Russian victory in 1709 greatly reduced the threat of the Swedish armies, Peter moved in high gear and wanted to build a city like no other in the world, the St. Petersburg.
Treaty of Pyrenees
..., The treaty that ended fighting between France and Spain that continued after the Thirty Years' War; the treaty marked the end of Spain's status as a major European power.
Treaty of Stockholm
Signed in 1719 and 1720 that ended the war between Sweden and an alliance of Hanover and Prussia.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
Followers of Jan Hus who called for reforms of the Catholic Church. They had crusades called against them, but the crusades were unsuccessful. They were granted religious freedom in exchange for being loyal to the church.
(r1603 - 1625): First of the Stuart family. Elizabeth puts him into power. He is her nephew, King of Scotland. Son of Mary Queen of Scots. The English Parliament dislikes him because they look …
(r. 1685-1688) a Catholic king who greatly angered Parliament nobles and whose actions led to the Glorious Revolution
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England. He tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. He was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.
League of Augsburg
This was a military alliance that was created in 1689 by all of the major European nations except for France. The purpose of the alliance was to prevent France from dominating Europe.
Battle of Lepanto
(1571) Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope
(r. 1610-1643)Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state. Established absolute rule.
(r. 1553-1558) came to throne after Edward VI of England died. Daughter of Catherine of Aragon and Henry VIII. She restored Catholic doctrine to England alike her father. She was bloody..
He led the Swedish barons to overthrow Christian II of Denmark out of leadership of the Scandnavian kingdoms. He later became king of independant Sweden and established the Lutheran Church in Sweden. The Swedish Luth…
Albrecht von Wallenstein
He was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty Years' War to Ferdinand II for no charge except…
War of Austrian Succession
(1740-48)Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charl…
Wars of the Roses
A series of wars fought by two English houses, or families, in the late fifteenth century for rule of the country. The House of Lancaster had a red rose as its emblem; the Hous…
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V.
the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the H…
William II of Orange
his father Frederick Henry died, and he succeeded to both his hereditary titles and his elective offices as stadtholder of five of the seven provinces: Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel. The Netherlands at …