Level 26
Level 27

Communism


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Communism
a political and economic system in which all wealth and property are shared to eliminate exploitation, oppression, and the need for political institutions
Socialism
an economic system favoring collective and government ownership over individual ownership
Karl Marx
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudal…
bourgeoisie
Enemy of the working class according to Karl Marx.
proletariat
Karl Marx's term for the working class. Those he felt were exploited by the capitalists.
Labor theory of value
the value invested in any human-made good that can be used by another individual.
Base
the economic system of a society, made up of technology,the means of production, and class relations between people,the relations of production,
Exploitation
According to Marx this happens due to greed
False consciousness
failure to understand the nature of one's exploitation; essentially "buying into" the superstructure
Superstructure
all noneconomic relations in a society for example, religion, culture, national identity These ideas and values derive from the base and serve to legitimize the current system of exploitation
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
Fascism
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Isolationism
A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
Laissez Faire
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Open Market
Buying & selling government securities to change the supply of money
Private Ownership
a situation in which individuals (rather than workers, the government, or communal groups) own the raw materials, machines, tools, labor, trucks, buildings, and other inputs needed to produce and distribute goods and services
Profit Motive
the force that encourages people and organizations to improve their material well-being
Capital
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
Private enterprise
economic system that allows individuals to pursue their own interests without undue governmental restriction
Marxist
People who believe that those who control the economic system also control the political system
Adam Smith
(1723-1790) Scottish philosopher who formulated laws that governed the economy to benefit human society
Class Struggle
conflict between social or economic classes (especially between the capitalist and proletariat classes)
Standard Of Living
Quality of life based on ownership of necessities and luxuries that make life easier.
Bolsheviks
A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917
Lenin
Founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the cou…
Rasputin
Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues.
Provisional government
A temporary government
Soviet
A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Communist party
In 1924 the Bolsheviks renamed their party, created a constitution based on socialist and democratic principles, and organized a classless society
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial produc…
Totalitarianism
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Great purge
The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
command economy
An economic system controlled by centralized government and its hierarchy of departments. Consumer demand does not determine production or sale rather the government decides what, how much, for whom and all other variables in produc…
Five year plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
Collective farm
a farm or group of farms run by the government, as in a communist state
United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Iron Curtain
A political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
Containment
A U.S. diplomatic policy adopted by the Truman administration to contain Communist power within its existing boundaries.
Truman Doctrine
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Marshall Plan
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Cold War
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
brinksmanship
Eisenhower Policy of using the threat of massive retaliation with nuclear weapons as a diplomatic tool. Example: "willing to go to the edge."
KMT
Nationalist Party in China led by Jiang Jieshi, which began a war against the Communist Party led by Mao Zedong. Both fought for control of China, with Mao and the Communists ultimately winning in 1949.
Sun Yixian
(1866-1925) Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place. Also known as Sun Yat-sen.
May Fourth Movement
A 1919 protest in China against the Treaty of Versailles and foreign influence.
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Jiang Jieshi
(1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. Fought to keep China from becoming communist, and to resist the Japanese during World War II. He lost control of China in 1949, and …
Long March
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek. (789)
Commune
A group of collective farms, each with more than 30,000 people who live and work there
Red Guards
The youths who led Mao's Cultural Revolution. Wore red arm bands and carried his book. Terrorized Chinese citizens and determined who went to camps.
Cultural Revolution
(1966-1976) Political policy started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jail…
Level 28