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Nationalism and Imperialism.
What 2 forces dominated international relations in the 19th Century?
What do historians mean when talking about Nationalism?
It is where the citizens of a country have a love and loyalty to their own country and all its actions. "My country right or wrong!"
What do historians mean when talking about Imperialism?
It is where a country believes it can build it's power by taking over weaker countries.
Who were the major imperial powers in the 19th Century?
Britain and France; the British Empire covered 1/5 of the world's surface
Britain, France, Austria-Hungary and Russia
Who were the major powers of Europe in the 19th Century?
How did the major powers in Europe deal with each other in terms of foreign policy?
Generally the great powers of Europe of the 19th Century didn't fight each other because this would divert resources from conquering other far weaker countries, e.g. India and the continent of Africa.
Why was 1871 a significant year in terms of the origins of World War One?
Prussia had united all the other German states and created the united country of Germany
How had Prussia united Germany?
Prussia united Germany by defeating Austria and France and removing their influence from Germany.
What was the effect of German unification on the major European powers?
German unification was destabilizing. Germany was an economic powerhouse and a major military power.
How did the the major European powers respond to the rise of Germany?
Major European powers made alliances, whereby they would defend each other if they were attacked.
What was the consequence of the development the Alliance System before World War One?
The alliances between the major powers meant that countries began to build up the militray power. (Militarism)
How did Kaiser Wilhelm I see Germany's future?
Wilhelm thought Germany should be a great power, like Britain. Germany deserved it's 'Place in the sun'.
Morocco and the Balkans
Where were the hotspots of tension between the European major powers between 1900 -1914?
France and Germany disputed Morocco in 1905 and 1911
How did tensions between France and Germany show themselves in Morocco?
Why were the Balkans such a hotspot between 1900 -1914?
New countries, like Serbia, were trying to gain independence from Turkey and Austria.
Why were the leaders of Austria worried about the rise of independent Balkan nations, like Serbia?
Austria was a country made up of many different nationalities and was worried if Serbia became powerful, Serbs in Austria would want to leave Austria.
Russia was interested in the Balkans because
Which country was also interested in the Balkans?