Level 60
Level 61

Mutations & the Theory of Evolution

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What is Evolution?
A change in the genes of a population from one generation to the next.
What is a population?
a group of organisms that are all of the same species.
Mutations, Natural Selection
What is something that causes evolution?
What are Mutations?
change in the genetic code of an individual that is then spread through the population
Chromosome or gene
What types of Mutations can you have?
What is a chromosome mutation?
too many copies of a chromosome (as in Down's Syndrome)
What is a gene mutation?
switched letters (A's, T's, G's, and C's) on the DNA molecule
What is Natural Selection?
A theory of how traits become more or less common in a population because of the effects of the environment on the organisms.
What is Creationism?
thought that the organisms were the same as when God made them.
Who is Lamarck?
One of the first people to say that organisms change over time and that the environment had sometime to do with it.
What is The Theory of Use and Disuse?
If an organism uses a structure, it will develop. If an organism does not use a structure it will disappear
Who is Charles Darwin?
attended then dropped out of medical school then went to college again to study religion, but did not finish because He "took a cruise" on the HMS Beagle and served as a Naturalist
Where did Darwin go on his cruise?
South America and the Galapagos Islands where he
What does Darwin do with what he observed?
He develops "The Theory of Natural Selection" to explain how organisms change over time or EVOLVE.
How did Darwin explain his Theory?
In 1859, Darwin published "On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection" = a book of over 500 pages that presented extensive evidence on his theory.
What does the phrase "Survival of the Fittest" mean?
The organisms with the helpful traits will survive and reproduce and eventually evolve.
What are Homologous structures?
Structures or organs that share a common ancestry:
What are Vestigial Structures?
a structure in an organism that has become reduced in size and function but resembles the a fully functioning organ found in related organisms.
What are genetic mutations?
A change in the DNA sequence of an organism that could:
What is germ cell mutation?
A mutation in the DNA of a germ cell that will result in an offspring with a mutation.
What is a somatic cell mutation?
A mutation in a body cell that is not passed on to the offspring.
What is the cause of mutations?
What are some examples of mutagens?
What chromosome inversion?
A chromosome segment is removed, turned upside down and put back into the chromosome.
What is chromosome translocation?
a piece of a chromosome is moved from one chromosome to another that is not in the same pair.
What is chromosome nondisjunction?
having an extra or missing chromosomes because the chromosomes did not separate properly during meiosis when the egg or sperm were forming. Ex: extra 23rd chromosome=Down's Syndrome
What are gene or point mutations?
A change in the sequence of letters in the DNA that makes up a gene.
substitution, deletion, insertion
What are the types of point mutations?
What is a substitution point mutation?
exchange of a single letter for another:
What is a deletion point mutation?
removal of one or more letters in the gene.
What is a insertion point mutation?
addition of one or more letters to the gene.
What is a silent mutation?
the gene is changed, but the amino acid sequence that is produced is the same = same protein.
Level 62