Level 63
Level 64

Thinking Machines


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Computers are intricate, but their basic components are...
simple devices that can be either on or off
Simply, the computer...
takes information, processes it, and produces an output.
Hardware is...
any physical component on the computer (monitor, hard drive, etc.)
Software is...
the instructions given to a computer (typed input, CPU-Processing, programs, etc.)
What does MIPS mean?
millions of instructions per second
tables such as trignometry, tides, multiplication, etc.
The industrial revolution's emerging fields of engineering, navigation, etc. required massive amounts of what?
computers
People who worked with tables and figures were called...
it caused the tables to be full of error
What was the disadvantage of a man being a computer?
100 years
Charles Babbage was how far ahead of his time?
How did Babbage demonstrate his genius?
He came up with a computing machine and drew plans for it in 1820.
Difference Engine
What was Babbage's machine called?
Personal revenue and government grants
What did Babbage use to fund his invention?
What were some difficulties Babbage faced?
Not enough supplies and computer parts, not enough money, critics, perfectionism, misunderstood, enemies...
Who were Babbage's enemies?
Organ grinders(he tried to have their music banned as it interfered with his thoughts)
well, but it wasn't completed
How well did Babbage's machine work?
Why were Babbage's funds cut?
he was using too much money and not getting enough results
analytical engine
What other idea interrupted Babbage's invention?
Lady Ada Augusta
The world's first programmer because of his/her descriptions about the analytical engine?
Only a small fraction
How many machines was Babbage able to make before his death?
Lady Ada Augusta's detailed writings
Who kept Babbage's ideas well known and preserved?
1890
What Census led to a contest to speed up counting?
Herman Hollerith
Who made the device that read punched cards?
six weeks
How long did it take for Hollerith's invention to count 62,622,250 people?
Tabulating Machine Company
What company did Hollerith establish?
Railroad
What industry challenged Hollerith?
over $1,000,000
How much money did Hollerith sell the shares in his company for?
What companies were merged to form IBM?
Time Recording Company of NY, Daytona Scale Company, Tabulating Machine Company
What is IBM?
International Business Machines
Thomas Watson, Sr.
What 'master salesman' led IBM?
Enigma
What was the 'unbreakable' German code machine called?
What was the Enigma and why was it impossible to decrypt?
a radio sending encrypted messages; code changed daily and astronomycal possibilities for each character
Bletchley Park
What was the secret installation north of London where British code breakers tried to decipher Enigma?
Colossus
What was the 'computer-like machine' that was built by British code breakers?
2
The Collossus contained__________ vacuum tubes.
2,5
The Collossus processed__________characters per second.
'Ultra Secret'
Deciphered German transmissions were called the...
Philedelphia
Where was the computational device that would influence all future computers developed?
Firing; artillery pieces
WWII brought a need for '__________ tables' to account for what?
John Mauchley; professor at Moore School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvania
Who proposed a computer that would calculate a trajectory in 100 seconds? Where did he work?
$500,000
How much money did the army give to Mauchley for his project/idea?
Presper Eckert
What graduate student aided Mauchley?
ENIAC
What did Mauchley and Eckert develope?
What does ENIAC stand for?
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
100 feet long; 30 tons
ENIAC was how long and weighed how much?
70,000 or 70k
ENIAC had __________ registors?
10,000,000 or 10,000k
ENIAC had __________ capacitors?
6,000 or 6k
ENIAC had __________ switches.
18,000 or 18k
ENIAC had __________ vacuum tubes?
a few months after
How long after WWII was ENIAC completed?
5
ENIAC performed __________additions per second?
357
ENIAC did __________multiplications per second?
38
ENIAC was able to do __________divisions every second?
What qualities did ENIAC lack/what problems existed?
memory, re-wired each time, no logical decisions/results
practical
After ENIAC, people still wanted what type of computer?
John Von Neuman
Who was an advisor to ENIAC as well as a principle scientist in the Manhattan Project?
First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC; after WWII
What was the title of John Von Neuman's paper describing the structure of the modern computer? When was it written?
hold its programming internally in its memory
Most important from John Von Neuman's paper was the idea of a computer that could...
the Univac
Eckert and Mauchley's business in Philedelphia developed a business computer called...
The Univac showed its significance how?
Correctly predicting the outcome of the presidential election
Which election did the Univac correctly predict?
1952; between Dwight Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson
Tom Watson, Jr.
Who took IBM from office machine sales into the computer age?
701
What computer did IBM create in 1953?
transistors
What made it possible for computers to be powerful and small and eventually allowed a computer in space?
What is the order of generations for computer power?
vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated circuit, silicon chip or microprocessor
William Shockley, William Britain, and John Bardeen
What three Bell Labs employees won the Nobel Prize because of their invention of the transistor?
small, require little power, produce little heat
Three advantages of transisters over vacuum tubes are...
Robert Noyce, Jack Kilby
Who invented the integrated circuit in 1959?
transistors, diodes, capacitors, and resistors; chip of silicon
The integrated circuit grouped electrical componants such as __________ onto a single__________.
What was the effect of the integrated circuit?
10 ounce computer as powerful as one weighing 30 pounds using transistors
lunar lander and lunar orbiter
What were the computers used in the space program?
Ted Hoff
Who came up with the idea of a microprocessor?
How is the microprocessor different from the integrated circuit?
It contained the entire processing unit on one chip (like a computer)
fingernail
A microprocessor is the size of a...
control unit, a clock (system clock)
What components made a microprocessor similar to a computer?
Volkswagen; HP Calculator
What did Steve Jobs sell to raise money for his computer company? What did Steve Wozniak sell?
It was large and unwieldy.
What was wrong with the Apple I?
Mike Markkula
Who joined Apple at age 32 in 1976 after seeing the Apple II?
command-line
Computers used __________ interface before using graphical interface or mice.
Doug Engelbart
In 1968, this scientist demonstrated his vision of an easy to use computer at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco.
mouse
Doug Engelbart came up with the idea of the...
word processing and hypertext
Doug Engelbart demonstrated what programs?
Apple
What group made Doug Engelbart's vision into a reality?
Robert Taylor
The Xerox executive who hired a team of scientists to make an easy-to-use personal computer was named...
Alto
The computer Xerox made that incorporated innovations used in personal computers today such as a GUI, mouse, built-in network, and laser printing was called the...
Steve Jobs
Who appreciated the brilliance of computer inventors and researchers when Xerox did not?
Graphical User Interface
What is a GUI?
the Macintosh
Steve Jobs was inspired by the Alto to create what?
software
The Macintosh was easy to use because it had operating system and applications also known as...
Bill Gates
Founder of a software empire; understood the importance of software over hardware to the future of computers
calculations; mill
The heart of Babbage's vision funtioned to make __________ and was called the __________.
CPU
The mill was similar to what?
store; memory(RAM)
An oblong strucure that held numbers to be used in calculations was called the __________ and was similar to modern-day __________.
punch cards
Instructions and numbers were given to Babbage's machine via...
Level 65