Level 66
Level 67

International Financial System & Monetary Policy


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Foreign Exchange Market Intervention
A deliberate action by a central bank to influence the exchange rate.
International Reserves
Central bank assets that are denominated in a foreign currency and used in international transactions.
Unsterilized Foreign Exchange Intervention
A foreign exchange market intervention in which the central bank does not offset the effect of the market intervention on the monetary base.
Balance-of-Payment Accounts
A measure of all flows of private and government funds between a domestic economy and all foreign countries.
Official Reserve Assets
Assets that central banks hold and that they use in making international payments to settle the balance of payments and to conduct international monetary policy.
Exchange Rate Regime
A system for adjusting exchange rates and flows of goods and capital among countries.
Fixed Exchange Rate System
A System in which exchange rates are set at levels determined and maintained by governments.
Gold Standard
A fixed exchange system under which currencies of participating countries are convertible into an agreed-upon amount of gold.
Bretton Woods System
An exchange rate system that lasted from 1945 to 1971, under which countries pledged to buy and sell their currencies at fixed rates against the dollar and the United States pledged to convert dollars …
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
A multinational organization established in 1944 by the Bretton Woods agreement to administer a system of fixed exchange rates and to serve as a lender of last resort to countries undergoing balance-of-payments problems.
Devaluation
Lowering a currency's value in relation to other currencies by government order
Revaluation
The raising of the official value of a country's currency relative to other currencies.
Flexible Exchange Rate System
A system in which the foreign exchange value of a currency is determined in the foreign exchange market.
Managed Float Regime
An exchange rate system in which central banks occasionally intervene to affect foreign exchange values, also called a dirty float regime.
European Monetary Union
A plan drafted as part of the 1992 single European market initiative, in which exchange rates were fixed and eventually a common currency was adopted.
Euro
The common currency of 17 European countries.
European Central Bank (ECB)
The central bank of the European countries that have adopted the euro.
Pegging
The decision by a country to keep the exchange rate fixed between its currency and another country's currency.
Level 68