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A written legal agreement signed in 1215 that limited the English monarch's power.
A governing body created by King Edward I that included some commoners, Church officials, and nobles.
Hundred Years' War
A series of battles fought by France and England between 1337 and 1453.
The legal concept that an accused person cannot be held in jail indefinitely without being charged with a crime.
A deadly contagious disease caused by bacteria and spread by fleas; also called the Black Death.
A person who holds beliefs that are contrary to a set of religious teachings.
Battle of Agincourt
The battle marked the last of the three brilliant English victories in the Hundred Years' War against France.
Battle of Crecy
The battle which was fought at the village of Crecy in northern France went into history for the disastrous defeat of the French despite the fact that they had a considerable numerical superiority.
Battle of Poitiers
Son of Edward III of England, Edward the Black Prince heavily defeated the superior French army near Poitiers, the today's capital of the French region of Poitou-Charentes
Siege of Orleans
One of the greatest successes of the French army during the entire war enabled Charles VII to travel to Rheims to be crowned as King of France but it also significantly increased the morale among the French soldiers.
Battle of Castillon
The battle which ended with the French victory marked the end of the Hundred Years' War between France and England, although a peace treaty was never signed.
King John of England
compelled to negotiate further and, on 19 June at Runnymede on the River Thames, he accepted the baronial terms embodied in the Magna Carta, which limited royal power, ensured feudal rights and restated English law.
Joan of Arc
A 17-year old French peasant girl who claimed divine guidance lifted the Siege of Orleans which marked the turning point in the Hundred Years' War and built French national pride.
Alliance formed by Northern European cities such as Hamburg, Cologne, and Krakow to protect trade routes.
wool cloth, silver, wine, grain
Products traded from Europe to Asia
perfume, spice, and silk
Products traded from Asia to Europe
About 20 million
Number of European deaths from the Black Plague
City that controlled trade between Europe and Asia. The Plague was spread easily there.
City that controlled trade in the western Mediterranean Sea
European Sea Routes
Crossed the Baltic, North, Black, and Mediterranean Seas.
The Archbishop of Canterbury. He was killed in front of the Cathedral by knights wishing to gain the favor of King Henry II
Constitutions of Clarendon
document that spelled out the king's traditional rights, including trying clergy in royal courts, rather than Church courts
weapon that helped the English win early battles of the Hundred Year's War
Persecution of Jews was made worse as people blamed Jews for the plague.
Impact of the plague on feudalism
The need for workers to rebuild Europe led to a shift in power from feudal lords to the common people.
Impact of political developments on feudalism
Legal reforms, the Magna Carta, and the Model Parliament strengthened common law, established universal rights and liberties, and gave a voice in government to the common people and nobles.
Impact of the Hundred Year's War on feudalism
The series of battles strengthened the national identities and monarchs of France and England and reduced the importance of nobles and knights on the battlefield.