Level 73
Level 74

Multinational Corporations & Globalization


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360Buy
Chinese electric commerce company
Acer
Taiwanese hardware and electronics company
Adidas
German sports apparel company
Airbus
French aircraft manufacturer
Alibaba Group
Chinese electronic commerce company
Anheuser Busch InBev
Belgium beverage company
Arcelor Mittal
Luxembourg steel company
Astra Zeneca
United Kingdom, pharmaceutical and biologics
BAE Systems
English defence contractors
Baidu
Chinese online search engine
BASF
German chemical company
Bayer
German chemicals and pharmaceuticals
Bertelsmann
German mass media company
Bharti Airtel
Indian Telecommunications
Carrefour
French general merchandise hypermarket
Dang Dang
Chinese electronic commerce
Danone
French food company
Diageo
United Kingdom, alcoholic beverages
Fujitsu
Japanese information technology equipment/services
Gazprom
Russian natural gas company
GlaxoSmithKline
United Kingdom, Pharmaceuticals, biologics, vaccines, consumer healthcare
Haier
Chinese consumer electronics and home appliances
Hitachi
Japanese engineering and electronics company
Hon hai Precision
Taiwanese electronics contract manufacturing company
Huawei
Chinese networking and telecommunications company
Infosys
Indian information technology company
Lenovo
Chinese technology company
Li & Fung
Chinese consumer goods
Nestle
Switzerland food and beverage company
Nikon
Japanese optics and imaging company
Nokia
Finland, communications and information technology
Novartis
Swiss pharmaceutical company
Panasonic
Japanese electronics
Pernod Ricard
French alcoholic beverages company
POSCO
South Korean steel company
Rio Tinto
Australian metals and mining company
SAB Miller
United Kingdom, beverages
Samsung
South Korean electronics
Sanofi
French pharmaceutics company
SAP
German software
Siemans
German engineering and electronics
Skanska
Swedish construction and development
Sodexo
French food services and facilities management
Sony
Japanese entertainment
Tata
Indian information technology
Tesco
English grocery and general merchandise
Unilever
Netherlands, consumer goods
Wesfarmers
Australian retail
Wipro
Indian information technology
Xstrata
Swiss mining company
licensing
a global strategy in which a girm allows a foreign company to produce its product in exchange for a fee
sovereign wealth funds
investments in foreign companies by governments
exporting
selling products to another country
Absolute Advantage
Ability of one country to produce more output per unit of input than any other country
World Trade Organization
An international institution for the negotiated liberalization of world trade. It replaced the GATT in 1994.
joint venture
a partnership in which two or more companies (often from different countries) join to undertake a major project
Balance Of Trade
The balance of trade is the difference between the value of a nations exports (good sold) and the value of its imports (goods purchased).
foreign subsidiary
a company owned in a foreign country by a parent company
trade surplus
a favorable balance of trade; occurs when the value of a country's exports exceeds that of its imports
exchange rate
The price of one currency to another.
balance of payments
the difference between a country's imports and its exports
tariffs
a tax imposed on imports
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
a 1948 agreement that established an international forum for negotiating mutual reductions in trade restrictions
foreign direct investment
Investment and corresponding management control by a corporation in a foreign affiliate, through a merger, acquisition, or greenfield investment.
common market
a trading bloc like the European Union; has a common external tariff, no internal tariffs, and a coordination of laws to facilitate exchange
importing
buying products from another country
comparative advantage theory
a country should sell to other countries those products that it produces most effectively and efficiently and buy from other countries those products that it cannot produce as effectively and efficiently
Devaluation
Lowering a currency's value in relation to other currencies by government order
free trade
: takes place between countries when there are no barriers to trade put in place by governments or international organizations. Goods and services are allowed to move freely between countries.
Trade Deficit
A negative balance of trade (a country imports more than it exports)
embargo
a complete ban on the import or export of a certain product, or the stopping of all trade with a particular country
dumping
Exporting a product at a price below the price it normally sells for in its home market. This is usually done to build market share.
strategic alliance
a long-term partnership between two or more companies established to help each company build a competitive market advantages
import quota
a limit on the number of products in certain categories that a nation can import
NAFTA
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
countertrading
a complex form of bartering in which several countries may be involved, each trading goods for goods or services for services
contract manufacturing
a foreign country's production of private-label goods to which a domestic company then attaches its brand name or trademark; part of the broad category of outsourcing
multinational corporation
An enterprise that operates in a number of countries, with production or service facilities outside its country of origin.
Level 75