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Level 75

America in a World At War


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Washington Conference of 1921
an attempt to prevent a naval armaments race between America, Britain, and Japan. Even though the US had not ratified the Versailles Treaty, it pursed internationalism toward the goal of disarmament and peace at this.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
a proposed pact that outlawed war as an instrument of national policy in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another. The treaty contained no instruments of enforcement, bu…
Neutrality Acts
were designed to prevent a recurrence of the events that many Americans now believed had pressured the US into World War I. In 1935, it established a mandatory arms embargo against both victim and aggre…
Munich Conference of 1938
On Sept 29, Hitler met with the leaders of France and Britain at Munich in an effort to resolve the crisis. The French and Britain agreed to accept the German demands in Czechoslovakia in re…
Appeasement
A result of the Munich Conference of 1938; became exclusively tied and identified with Chamberlain. Although Hitler had signed an agreement in the Munich Conference, Hitler returned to his expansion ways as he took…
War of the Worlds
Because of the such high anxiety running around Europe and the United States over Hitler's conquest of the Rhineland and Czechoslovakia, it helped produce strange expressions of fear as the hysterical response to this fa…
Cash and Carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 after France and Britain had declared war on Germany, to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United State…
America First Committee
A committee organized by "isolationists" before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before it went to war in another country. It attracted prominent leaders; including Charles Lindbergh, General …
Election of 1940
Roosevelt (democratic) vs. Wendell Wilkie (republican), Roosevelt ran with vice president Agriculture Secretary Henry A. Wallace; FDR had to declare that he would not send Americans to war in order to win; greatly plagued…
Wendell Willkie
Election of 1940-Republican candidate who ran against FDR, he was a lawyer and utility executive. Criticized FDR's New Deal, but largely agreed with his war policies such as preparedness and aiding Britain short of ente…
Lend Lease
A new system invented to allow wartime goods to be sent to Britain and other allies. It would allow the government to not only sell but to lend or lease armaments to any nation de…
German U-Boat Warfare
The Germans would target American ships carrying war armaments to the allies. In September, a German U-Boat fired on the American destroyer Greer. Roosevelt responded by ordering American ships to fire on German submarine…
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII and to work for peace after the war. It was known in w…
Henry Stimson
Secretary of War during War World II who trained 12 million soldiers and airmen, the purchase and transportation to battlefields of 30 percent of the nation's industrial output and agreed to the building of…
Pearl Harbor
U.S. naval base in Hawaii that was attacked by Japan which caused America to enter World War II against the Axis Powers.
General Douglas MacArthur
Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. Escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Received the Medal of Honor.
Admiral Chester Nimitz
He was the commander of the Pacific Fleet during WW2, and he was the man who directed the U.S. victories at Midway, Iwo-Jima, and Okinawa
General George C. Marshall
army chief of staff; supported a plan for a major Allied invasion of France across the English Channel in the spring of 1943. He said the famous quote, "An officer's ultimate commanding loyalty at…
General George S. Patton
American General who pushed German troops into Tunisia and saved the allied forces at the battle of the bulge. He regrouped American troops and began an effective counteroffensive; with help from allied troops, air…
Siege of Stalingrad
Turning point in Germany's assault on Soviet Union in 1942; despite decimating the civilian population of the city and devastating the surrounding countryside, the Russian Red Army successfully defended the city; over one-third of Ge…
The Holocaust
he systematic effort of the Nazi state to exterminate all European Jews and other groups deemed racially inferior during the Second World War. News of the atrocities reached the public causing a outcry in pres…
anti-Semitism
hostility or hatred towards Jewish people
Union Power
The war gave an enormous boost to union membership, but it also created important new restrictions on the ability of unions to fight for their members' demands. Public animosity toward labor rose rapidly, and …
Office of Price Administration
Led by Leon Henderson, then Chester Bowles. It's goal was to enforce the Anti-Inflation Act, which gave the administration authority to freeze agricultural prices, wages, salaries, and rents throughout the country. This sector was n…
War Production Board
In Jan 1942, the president responded to criticism from the OPA and created this under former Sears Roebuck executive Donald Nelson. In theory, this was supposed be a "super agency" with broad powers over…
Wartime Technology
expanded greatly during the war. Axis originally had the advantage, but the Allies came to surpass them due to mass production and further investments in research. Radar, sonar, nuclear power, mine technology, anti-aircraft technology, …
Phillip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination. Insisted that government require companies receiving defense contracts to integrate t…
Fair Employment Practices Commission
Established to investigate and combat discrimination against blacks in war industries; its powers were limited, but its creation was a rare symbolic victory for African Americans making demands from the government. It guaranteed the employ…
Congress of Racial Equality
organized in 1942, mobilized mass popular resistance to discrimination in a way that the older, more conservative organizations had never done; African American leaders helped organize sit ins and demonstrations in segregated theaters and restaura…
Native American Code-Talkers
Native Americans that worked in military communications and speaking their own languages which enemy forces could not understand or decode over radios or telephones. It brought many Native Americans into contact with society and awak…
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
Nicknamed the "Indian New Deal", it encouraged tribes to establish local self-government and to preserve native culture. Nearly two hundred tribes established self-government under the terms of the act. It also welcomed many Native Ameri…
Braceros
Mexican "contract laborers" that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers. The would be admitted f…
Zoot Suit Riots
In the 1940's - Riots that occurred mostly in Los Angeles, CA between white marines and young Mexican Americans. The "zoot suits" became a symbol of rebellion against and defiance toward conventional white, middle-class soci…
Rosie the Riveter
a cultural icon of the United States, representing the American women who worked in war factories during World War II, many of whom worked in the manufacturing plants that produced munitions and materiel. These w…
USO
This organization, chaired by the President of the United States, was designed to support and entertain military service men. They recruited thousands of young women to serve as hostesses in clubs and to talk lo…
The Swing Era
Jazz became the cornerstone of popular culture during the Swing Era. It influenced clothing styles, retail marketing, fashion, dance, and even language. Jazz helped pull America out of the Depression and get through World War II
Japanese Internment
Because of World War II, hatred toward Japanese and Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the United States spread; while approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of t…
Election of 1944
Year in which Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey for president and John W, Bricker (an isolationist senator) for vice president. Democrats renominated Roosevelt but changed vice president to Harry S. Truman. Roosevelt won with swee…
Dresden Firebombing
the US Air Force and the British Air Force bombed Dresden to the ground; it was the only place not bombed yet and contained a lot of industrial factories that generated supplies for the German Army
General Dwight D. Eisenhower
led the Allied invasion of North African and planned and executed the D-Day invasion at Normandy and the Battle of the Bulge. Was chosen over General George C. Marshall to lead and command the D-Day invasion.
D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops; the largest invasion force in history, stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World…
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944 to January, 1945: After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed …
V-E Day
May 8, 1945; remaining German forces surrendered unconditionally. "Victory in Europe" day prompted great celebrations in western Europe and in the US, tempered by the knowledge of the continuing war in Japan.
Battle for Okinawa
Japan's last defensive outpost, 3,500 kamikaze pilots used in the battle, ended on June 22nd 1945. It was used as a forecast for what an invasion of the mainland would be like. Japanese forces c…
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States. It prima…
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Level 76