Level 75
Level 76

Age of Nationalism & Realism


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Louis Napoleon III
Used nationalistic and liberal forces to bolster his power. Took power of France in 1854 and created an authoritarian monarchy. When opposition arose he began to liberalize his government. The devastating lost to Prussia bro…
Crimean War
A conflict between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, French Empire, and British Empire. It was a long running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of…
Florence Nightingale
A British nurse during the Crimean Wars who saved many lives through her rules on strict sanitary conditions. She pioneered nursing as a profession of trained, middle-class women.
Italian Unification
During 1848, Italy was separated into many states. Cavour worked to unify the North then helped Giuseppe Garibaldi unify the South staring with Sicily. Garibaldi eventually stepped aside and handed over all of Southern I…
Count Camillo di Cavour
The liberal minded nobleman who became the Prime Minister in 1852. He encouraged economic expansion and fostered businesses and new industry, favoring a constitutional government. The increase in governmental revenue allowed Cavour to equip a large army.
Italian Unification 2
Cavour used his new alliance with france to go to war with Austria. But France made peace with Austria and Italy only received Lombardy. Eventually nationalists in many Austrian controlled states agreed to join with Piedmont.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian patriot who supported Mazzini and the republican cause of Young Italy. He raised and army of a thousand Red Shirts, landed in Sicily and lead a revolt against the Bourbon king. After winning …
Unification of Germany
1871, unified under Bismarck uses spirit of nationalism provoked by the Napoleonic wars; nationalist based on language and religion and culture (not civic nationalism like the French); what we get is "the worship of…
Zollverein
A German customs union that eliminated tolls on rivers and roads among German states. This stimulated trade and added to the prosperity of the German states.
Otto von Bismarck
Played a major role in leading Prussia to achieve the unification of the German states into a new German Empire. He was portrayed as the ultimate realist. He became the chancellor of the new Germany
Danish War
This war arose over the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. The Danish government moved to incorporate these two duchies, this upset German nationalists because these were German states. Bismarck and Prussia joined with Austri…
Austro-Prussian War
Bismarck isolated Austria from it's possible allies and made an ally of its own with Italy. Austria was defeated by Prussia's military reforms and lost only Venetia, but was excluded from German affairs. With …
Franco-Prussian War
Brought on by France's fear of such a powerful German nation. After Prussia instigated the French, France declared war on Prussia. But they were no match for the Prussian army and were defeated and captu…
Dual Monarchy
Each part of the empire now had a constitution, its own bicameral legislature, its own governmental machinery for domestic affairs, and its own capital. This was created by the Ausqleich, or compromise, of 1867.
Tsar Alexander II
Came into power in the midst of the Crimean war. He many many reforms, including abolition of serfdom and a system of self-government (through zemstvos).
Populism
The movement whose aim was to create a new society through the revolutionary acts of the peasants.
Benjamin Disraeli
Tory leader in British Parliament. Created the Reform Act of 1867, which took a step towards democratization. It lowered the monetary requirement to vote.
Karl Marx
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudal…
Communist Manifesto
Advocated the radical working class movement for the proletariat. It was meant to rouse the working class to action against an unequal society, the workers should eventually overthrow their bourgeois masters.
Materialism
The belief that everything mental, spiritual, or ideal was simply a result of physical force.
Second Scientific Revolution
Steam engine innovations, periodic table, ideas for a primitive generator, were just a few of the ideas. This movement led to the undermining of faith in many people.
Organic Evolution
Charles Darwin's Theory (you know it)
Pasteurization
Heating a product to destroy the organisms causing spoilage, used in medicine to kill germs, saved many lives as it was more sanitary.
Realism
A perspective that stresses the importance of self-help, power, and the competitiveness of states in an anarchical international system. This is important in international relations because realism includes Structural Realists, like Waltz, and Classical Realists like Morgenthau.
Level 77