Level 78
Level 79

Establishment of West-European Leadership


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Louis XIV
became king in 1643 but fully ruled after 1661. Under the "Sun King," French language, thought, literature, architecture, clothing, food, and etiquette set the standards for Europe.
Charles II of Spain
imbecile king of Spain, last of the Spanish Hapsburgs
Balance Of Power
A balance of power is a state of equilibrium in which no nation or group of nations is able to dominate others.
Hugo Grotius
Dutch lawyer (1583- 1645). Wrote that natural law should govern politics, not Scripture or religious authority. Wrote "the Laws or War and Peace", suggesting that international conventions should govern treatment of POW's, civilians and …
Leeuenhoek
microscope
dutch companies
Dutch East India Company & Dutch West Indies Company
dutch colonies
Manhattan, Cape of Good Hope; Brazil, Curaçao, Guinea.
bank of amsterdam
backed by the Dutch government, made Holland the financial center of world: allowing deposit of "mixed money" and issuing notes for florins--soon the main international currency, and innovative use of checks and guaranteed deposits.
dutch government
Each province had a stadtholder, but most provinces usually elected the Prince of Orange in emergencies. Normally the burghers ran the government, keeping Holland decentralized.
William Of Orange
(1650-1702) Dutch Calvinist, married Mary (Protestant daughter of James II Stuart) and ruled England with her after England's Glorious Revolution
the English Civil War
The English Civil War (1641-1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first (1642-46) and second (1648-49) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against…
James I Stuart
had a major conflict with Parliament, because of: his belief in royal absolutism; his support of the Anglican hierarchy under Archbishop Laud who sought religious conformity at a time when Parliament was heavily Puritan. Supported by Hobbes.
house of lords
Facction of Parliament; dominated by great noble landowners
house of commons
Faction of parliament; the gentry plus reps of merchants and towns
Charles I Stuart
decided to rule without Parliament in 1629, and might have succeeded without major errors: his reforms in Ireland antagonized English landlords; his support of High Anglicans antagonized Puritans; and his idea of "ship money…
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Charles II Stuart
This Stuart restored monarchy back to England in 1660
test act
Parliament passed this, stating that all office-holders had to take communion in the Church of England, Catholics could not serve in army or navy.
whigs
Political party, upper aristocracy, strong rivals of the king, backed by the middle class and merchants of London.
tories
Political party, lesser aristocracy, gentry loyal to Church and King and suspicious of the "moneyed interest" of London.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688
Protestant struggle against a Catholic monarchy culminating in the expulsion of the catholic monarchs and Parliament's offering of the throne to James's protestant daughter, Mary.
Bill of Rights
(1689): No law could be suspended by the king; no taxes or army without Parliament's consent; no subject could be arrested or detained without legal process
Act of Settlement
(l701): No Catholic could be King of England
Toleration Act
(1689): Religious freedom for Dissenters
Act Of Union
(1707): Created the United Kingdom of Great Britain; Scots kept their legal system and religion
Bank of England
to pay for his new war with France, William borrowed from private lenders who were granted the right to operate this
Corneille and Racine
(2) French, wrote austere tragedies
Moliere
ridiculed doctors, the nouveaux riches, and aristocrats in bitingly satirical comedies
the Fronde
In 1648 a rebellion of nobles backed by the parliaments broke out against the power of Cardinal Mazarin, regent for the young Louis XIV--at the same time France was at war with Spain. The no…
L'etat c'est moi
Louis XIV believed "I am the state."
Versailles
Louis XIV's palace, a monument to worldly splendor, the marvel of Europe.
Colbert
dealt with economic & financial policies.
Colbert's reforms
These: great free trade area (or tariff union) called the "Five Great Farms, Commercial Code, national laws affecting merchants that replaced tons of local laws, subsidies and tax exemptions to key industries, supported the foun…
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Campaign against Huguenots in order to unify France with Catholicism
The War of Spanish Succession
Charles II died without an heir, leaving Spain to his sisters, one married to Leopold Habsburg, the other to Louis Bourbon. Balance of power principles called for a division of the spoils, but Charles' …
The Grand Alliance
England, Holland, the Holy Roman Empire, Brandenburg, Portugal, and Savoy
Peace Of Utrecht
signed by the same powers as the Peace of Westphalia (plus England), confirmed the system of international relations. France and Great Britain were left as the two strongest powers and the principle carriers and exporters of European civilization.
Level 80