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the building blocks of sentences (words, phrases, clauses) and how they go together to mean something to the reader or listener
words which name people, places, things, ideas and concepts
concrete nouns
refer to things we touch or can experience physically (e.g. snow, butter)
abstract noun
refer to ideas and concepts that only exist in the mind
proper nouns
names of specific people, places or things e.g. Swindon
collective nouns
words that are used to name a collection of people/animals/things.
noun phrase
a group of words with a noun at the centre of it
a word which describes a noun e.g. big, heavy, amazing
comparative adjective
the form of a description that designates comparison between two things, generally made by adding the suffix 'er' to the word's base form (e.g. this is a faster car)
superlative adjective
expresses the highest level of the quality, generally made by adding 'est' to its base form (the fastest car)
a word which expresses an action, occurrence, or mental/physical state e.g. walks, happens, runs, thinks.
main verb
the verb that carries the main meaning in a verb phrase (e.g. run, open)
material verb
describes actions or events
mental verb
describes perception, thought, feeling or speech
auxiliary verb
assists the main verb - forms of be, have and do
modal auxiliary verb
Words that can give a sense of future time (will) it is their ability to convey notions of possibility, probability, necessity or obligation (can, could, may, might, shall, should, ought to, must, would)
epistemic modality
Modal auxiliary verbs expressing possibility, probability, certainty.
deontic modality
Modal auxiliary verbs expressing obligation, permission or order.
regular verbs
take the regular 'ed' inflection when changing from present to past tense (e.g. walk/walked)
irregular verbs
verbs that change their form when changing from present to past tense (e.g. swim/swam)
a word that modifies a verb telling you how, where or when an action takes place. These words usually end with 'ly'
a word which shows how elements in a sentence or clause relate to each other in time or space
a word that joins clauses together
temporal conjunctions
later, next, now, soon, afterwards
use of conjunctions such as: and, also, too, in addition, furthermore
conjunctions showing consequence
use of conjunctions such as: so, therefore, thus, as a result, consequently
comparative conjunction
similarly, likewise, just as, as well, also, but, however, whereas, and, yet, on the contrary, on the other hand
summative conjunction
in conclusion, on the whole, with all things considered
a word which occurs with a noun/noun phrase and gives us further information about that noun/noun phrase: its definiteness/indefiniteness (the table / a table, quantity (many tables/few tables)
a determiner such as 'a' or 'the'
definite article
indefinite article
a, an
a word that takes the place of a noun/ noun phrase. E.g. he, mine, yourself, this.
relative pronouns
who, whom, which
demonstrative pronouns
this, these, that, those
first person singular personal pronoun
second person singular/plural personal pronoun
third person singular personal pronoun
first person plural personal pronoun
third person plural personal pronoun
active voice
clause construction where the subject is also the actor (they are doing or have done something to somebody/something). The emphasis is on the subject carrying out an action.
passive voice
clause construction where the subject is not the actor (they have had or are having done something to them). The emphasis is on the subject 'suffering from' an action.
discourse marker
marks a change in direction in an extended piece of written or spoken text (e.g. nevertheless, to sum up)
the shortening or running together of words. An apostrophe replaces the missing letters.
Level 5