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the building blocks of sentences (words, phrases, clauses) and how they go together to mean something to the reader or listener
words which name people, places, things, ideas and concepts
refer to things we touch or can experience physically (e.g. snow, butter)
refer to ideas and concepts that only exist in the mind
names of specific people, places or things e.g. Swindon
words that are used to name a collection of people/animals/things.
a group of words with a noun at the centre of it
a word which describes a noun e.g. big, heavy, amazing
the form of a description that designates comparison between two things, generally made by adding the suffix 'er' to the word's base form (e.g. this is a faster car)
expresses the highest level of the quality, generally made by adding 'est' to its base form (the fastest car)
a word which expresses an action, occurrence, or mental/physical state e.g. walks, happens, runs, thinks.
the verb that carries the main meaning in a verb phrase (e.g. run, open)
describes actions or events
describes perception, thought, feeling or speech
assists the main verb - forms of be, have and do
modal auxiliary verb
Words that can give a sense of future time (will) it is their ability to convey notions of possibility, probability, necessity or obligation (can, could, may, might, shall, should, ought to, must, would)
Modal auxiliary verbs expressing possibility, probability, certainty.
Modal auxiliary verbs expressing obligation, permission or order.
take the regular 'ed' inflection when changing from present to past tense (e.g. walk/walked)
verbs that change their form when changing from present to past tense (e.g. swim/swam)
a word that modifies a verb telling you how, where or when an action takes place. These words usually end with 'ly'
a word which shows how elements in a sentence or clause relate to each other in time or space
a word that joins clauses together
later, next, now, soon, afterwards
use of conjunctions such as: and, also, too, in addition, furthermore
conjunctions showing consequence
use of conjunctions such as: so, therefore, thus, as a result, consequently
similarly, likewise, just as, as well, also, but, however, whereas, and, yet, on the contrary, on the other hand
in conclusion, on the whole, with all things considered
a word which occurs with a noun/noun phrase and gives us further information about that noun/noun phrase: its definiteness/indefiniteness (the table / a table, quantity (many tables/few tables)
a determiner such as 'a' or 'the'
a word that takes the place of a noun/ noun phrase. E.g. he, mine, yourself, this.
who, whom, which
this, these, that, those
first person singular personal pronoun
second person singular/plural personal pronoun
third person singular personal pronoun
first person plural personal pronoun
third person plural personal pronoun
clause construction where the subject is also the actor (they are doing or have done something to somebody/something). The emphasis is on the subject carrying out an action.
clause construction where the subject is not the actor (they have had or are having done something to them). The emphasis is on the subject 'suffering from' an action.
marks a change in direction in an extended piece of written or spoken text (e.g. nevertheless, to sum up)
the shortening or running together of words. An apostrophe replaces the missing letters.