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Level 5

Syntax


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syntax
The study of sentences and the order of the elements in a clause or sentence.
main clause
the part of a sentence that can stand on its own grammatically
subordiante clause
the part of a sentence that depends on the main clause and cannot stand on its own grammatically
simple sentence
a sentence that has only one clause
complex sentence
has two or more clauses one of which is a subordinate clause
compound sentence
has two or more main usually joined by the conjunctions 'and' or 'but'
compound-complex sentence
A sentence that has three or more clauses, one of which will be a subordinate clause and one of which will be a main clause.
minor sentence
a sentence that has some missing elements, such as the subject or the verb, making it technically ungrammatical
declarative
a statement, a type of sentence which gives information, where the subject typically comes in front of the verb (e.g. Two fish are in a tank.)
interrogative
a question - a type of sentence indicated by the swapping round of subject and verb (e.g. 'Are you happy?' rather than 'You are happy.'). Questions can also be formed by the use of question words (who, what, where, when, how) or simply by the use of a question mark (You're coming by train?).
imperative
a command - a type of sentence where the subject is usually left out and the verb is in its bare form (e.g. Give that hat to me!)
exclamation
a sudden cry or remark expressing surprise, strong emotion, or pain.
negating particle
the appearance of 'no' or 'not' in a phrase, clause or sentence
negative sentence
sentences with the presence of negating particle (no or not).
positive sentence
sentences with the absence of negating particle (no or not).
modal auxiliary verb
Words that can give a sense of future time (will) it is their ability to convey notions of possibility, probability, necessity or obligation (can, could, may, might, shall, should, ought to, must, would)
epistemic modality
Modal auxiliary verbs expressing possibility, probability, certainty.
deontic modality
Modal auxiliary verbs expressing obligation, permission or order.
active voice
clause construction where the subject is also the actor (they are doing or have done something to somebody/something). The emphasis is on the subject carrying out an action.
passive voice
clause construction where the subject is not the actor (they have had or are having done something to them). The emphasis is on the subject 'suffering from' an action.
conditional sentence
this type of sentence has two clauses. One part of the sentence depends on the events or situation described in the other part of the sentence. Key words used in this sentence are: when or if.
tag question
a short interrogative structure attached to a declarative or imperative. e.g. It's a nice day, isn't it.
Level 6