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Spoken language features


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utterance
a unit of speech
participants
the 'audience' of a transcript
purpose of a transcript
transactional - to convey information; interactional - to build relationships
adjacency pair
two halves of an interaction between speakers – turn and response.
contraction
the shortening or running together of words. An apostrophe replaces the missing letters.
deixis / deictic language
a term for ‘pointing’ words that rely on context to give them meaning. e.g.: this, that, here, there.
elision
omission of sounds syllables – typically not used in writing.
ellipsis
the missing out of words creating an incomplete construction.
filler
sounds or words spoken to fill gaps in an utterance.
hedge
a word or phrase which softens the force with which something is said.
phatic language
utterances which have a purely social function.
repetition
repeating a word or phrase.
repair
self-correction mid utterance.
false start
starting and then restarting an utterance to correct it.
vague language
words without precise meaning.
tag question
a short interrogative structure attached to a declarative or imperative. e.g. It's a nice day, isn't it.
colloquial language
informal, everyday language.
dialect
specific words and uses of grammar associated with a specific region.
discourse marker
word or phrase marking a shift in conversation.
pause
a speaker stops speaking momentarily.
paralinguistic features
non-verbal communication – gestures, posture, facial expression.
prosodic features
the way a speaker communicates through tone, pace, stress, volume.
idiolect
an individual's distinctive and unique use of language
sociolect
a way of speaking shared by a particular group of people from a particular age or social group
dialect
a particular form of a language which is peculiar to a specific region or social group
phonology
the study of the sound system of a language.
phonetics
the scientific study of speech processes; how sounds are physically articulated.
phonemes
the basic units of sound from which language is constructed
onomatopoeia
the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named
narrative monologue
one speaker spoken discourse
conversational dialogue
multiple speaker spoken discourse