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Mass Media

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social media includes websites and other online means of communication that are used for
social interaction amongst large groups of people
bias means that a subject is presented in a one sided way favouring one point of view over another
and can often consist of distorting a viewpoint or ignoring other viewpoints
synergy is where a product is produced in different forms
which are promoted together to enable greater sales than what could be achieved through a single form of the product
synergy can be achieved by different arms of the same company
or through the collaboration of multiple companies
technological convergence is where several media technologies once contained in separate devices are
combined in a single device
ideology refers to a set of ideas, values and beliefs that
represent a particular social group
preferred or dominant readings are the interpretations of messages in media content that
those who produce it would prefer their audiences to believe
the dominant ideology is an ideology that justifies the social advantages of the wealthy, powerful and influential groups in society
and justifies the disadvantages of those who lack wealth, power and influence
ideological state apparatuses are agencies that
spread the dominant ideology and justify the power of the dominant social class
false consciousness is a lack of awareness among people about what their real interests are
and the false belief that everyone benefits from the present structure of society
neophiliacs are people who dislike and get bored with tradition and routine
who rapidly embrace new technology and other changes
citizen journalism is where members of the public rather than professional journalists and media companies
collect, report and spread news stories and information
hegemony means the dominance in society of the ruling classes set of ideas over others
and the acceptance of them by the rest of society
gatekeeping is the power of some people, groups or organisations to
limit access to something valuable or useful
in terms of mass media gatekeeping refers to the power to not cover certain issues
preventing the public from accessing certain information
pluralism is a view that sees power in society as being spread amongst a wide variety of interest groups and individuals
with no one having a monopoly of power
tabloidization refers to the process where there is a decline in serious news reporting, coverage of current affairs and documentaries being replaced instead by
a dumbed down, entertainment focused and sensationalised form of journalism
a global village refers to the way that the media and electronic communications operate on a global scale
shrinking barriers of space and time making the world seem as if it is one large village or community
globalisation refers to the growing interconnectedness of societies across the world
with the same culture, consumer goods and economic interests being found across the globe
popular culture refers to the cultural products liked and enjoyed by the majority of society
and is often associated with mass culture
mass culture refers to a commercially produced culture which is made up of cultural products produced for mass audiences with little lasting value
that require little critical thought, analysis and discussion
low culture is a derogatory term used to suggest that
popular or mass culture is of inferior quality compared to the high culture of the elite
high culture refers to cultural products that are seen as having lasting artistic or literary value
and are admired and approved by intellectual elites as well as upper and middle classes
an elite is a small group
holding great power and privilege in society
global culture refers to the way cultures in different countries around the world have become more alike
sharing an increasing number of consumer products and ways of life
global culture has risen
as globalisation has undermined national and local cultures
cultural homogenisation is the process where
separate characteristics of two or more cultures are lost and become blended into one uniform culture
the idea of cultural homogenisation is often linked to
the ideas of globalisation and a global culture
cultural imperialism refers to the imposition of western culture on non western cultures
and the undermining of local cultures and cultural independence that occur as a result
media imperialism is the suggestion that the media
particularly new media forms have led to the imposition of western cultural values on non western cultures
hybridisation is the process of creating a new hybrid culture
when aspects of two or more different cultures combine
a hybrid culture is a new culture formed from
a mix of two or more other cultures
hyperreality is a view of the world which is created and defined by the media
with the image of an event being more real than the event it is meant to be depicting
simulacra are media images or reproductions and copies
which appear to reflect things in the real world but have no basis in reality
norm setting describes the way in which the media emphasise and reinforce conformity to social norms
seeking to isolate those who do not conform by making them victims of unfavourable media reports
a moral panic is a wave of public concern
about an exaggerated or imaginary threat to society
deviancy amplication
the way in which the media may create or make worse the very deviance they condemn
a hierarchy of credibility refers to how the greatest importance is attached by journalists to
the views and opinions of those in positions of power
primary definers are powerful individuals or groups whose position of power gives them greater access to the media than others
also giving them a greater ability to influence how journalists define the news
churnalism is a form of journalism where journalists produce articles based on secondary sources and prepacked material
without doing further research and checking the facts
media representations are the categories and images that are used to present groups and activities to media audiences
which may influence what we think about them
the male gaze is the way men look at women
as sexual objects
the media gaze is the way the media view society
and represent it in media content
symbolic annihilation refers to the lack of visibility or underrepresentation of certain groups in media representations
who are often shown in a few select roles
folk devils
individuals or groups posing an imagined or exaggerated threat to society
a stigmatised identity is an identity that is undesirable in some way
and excludes those who have it from being accepted within society
islamophobia is an irrational fear or hatred of
islam, muslims or islamic culture
the glass ceiling is an invisible barrier of discrimination
which makes it difficult for women to reach the same top levels in their chosen careers as men who are similarly qualified
sexuality refers to people’s
sexual characteristics and sexual behaviour
heterosexuality involves a sexual orientation towards
people of the opposite sex
sexual orientation refers to the type of people that individuals are either physically or romantically attracted to
such as those of the opposite or same sex
homosexuality involves a sexual orientation towards
people of the same sex
disability is a physical or mental impairment which has
a substantial long term effect on a person’s ability to carry out normal day to day activities
an impairment is some form of loss, limitation or difference in someone’s functioning or mind
that they were either born with or arose from injury or disease
a media text refers to any media product
which describes, defines or represents something
when something is polysemic such as a media text it means
that it can be interpreted in different ways by different people
a preferred or dominant reading is where audiences read or decode media texts in the way that
the producers of the content intended
a negotiated reading is where media audiences generally accept the preferred or dominant reading
but may find exceptions that fit their own beliefs, values and experiences
an oppositional reading is where
media audiences oppose or reject the preferred or dominant reading
the hawthorne effect is when the presence of a researcher or an individual's knowledge of being selected for research changes their behaviour
which impacts the validity of the research being conducted
cultural convergence refer to the way new media users engage with a range of media content
that is delivered in a variety of ways and make connections between it
a participatory culture is a media culture where the public are not just media consumers but are also media contributors
this culture is also referred to as the web 2.0 as it can be related to internet use
collective intelligence refers to the way users of new media collaborate
and share their knowledge, resources and skills online
the blogosphere is a collective term used to
describe all the online diaries and blogs on the internet
the digital divide refers to the gap between those who have effective access to the digital and information technologies that make up the new media
and those who lack such access
a digital underclass is a group of people who tend to be from the lower social classes who are increasingly disadvantaged compared to
those who have full access and use of the internet and other digital media
social capital refers to
the social networks of influence and support that people have
Level 5